Gelsemium sempervirens J. St.-Hil.
Pine/scrub oak sandhills (PSOS-MT), mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP), wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).
Occasional. Mar–early May; Sep–Nov . Thornhill 84 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 11 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Gelsemium sempervirens
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Gelsemium sempervirens
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Gelsemium sempervirens is a twining vine in the family Gelsemiaceae, native to warm temperate and tropical America from Guatemala north to the Southeastern United States. It has a number of common names including yellow jessamine or jasmine, Carolina jasmine or jessamine, evening trumpetflower, gelsemium and woodbine.
It can grow to 3–6 m high when given suitable climbing support in trees, with thin stems. The leaves are evergreen, lanceolate, 5–10 cm long and 1-1.5 cm broad, and lustrous, dark green. The flowers are borne in clusters, the individual flowers yellow, sometimes with an orange center, trumpet-shaped, 3 cm long and 2.5–3 cm broad. Its flowers are strongly scented and produce nectar that attracts a range of pollinators.
Historically Gelsemium sempervirens was used as a topical to treat papulous eruptions. It was also used to treat measles, neuralgic otalgia, tonsillitis, esophagitis, dysmenorrhea, muscular rheumatism, headaches.
All parts of this plant contain the toxic strychnine-related alkaloids gelsemine and gelseminine and should not be consumed. The sap may cause skin irritation in sensitive individuals. Children, mistaking this flower for honeysuckle, have been poisoned by sucking the nectar from the flower. The nectar is also toxic to honeybees, which may cause brood death when gathered by the bees. The nectar may, however, be beneficial to bumblebees. It has been shown that bees fed on gelsemine have a reduced load of Crithidia bombi in their fecal matter. Reduced parasite load increases foraging efficiency, and pollinators may selectively collect otherwise toxic secondary metabolites as a means of self-medication.
Despite the hazards, this is a popular garden plant in warmer areas, frequently being trained to grow over arbors or to cover walls.
- "Gelsemium sempervirens". Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. University of South Florida. Retrieved 2008-02-12.
- "Taxon: Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) J. St.-Hil.". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Beltsville, MD, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 2008-02-12.
- "Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) W. T. Aiton". Plants database. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2008-02-12.
- Winterburn, G. W. (1882). "Gelsemium sempervirens (therapeutics section)". Transactions of the National Eclectic Medical Association. Henriettes Herbal.
- "Gelsemium sempervirens". Drug Information Online. Drugs.com.
- Anthony Knight and Richard Walter. 2001. A Guide to Plant Poisoning of Animals in North America.
-  "Nectar Gardening for Butterflies, Honey Bees and Native Bees", Retrieved 2012-08-02
- Manson, J.S., Otterstatter, M.C., Thomson, J.D. "Consumption of a nectar alkaloid reduces pathogen load in bumble bees". 27 August 2009: Oecologia 162:81-89. Retrieved 2013
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