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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Dry Evergreen to Dry Deciduous Forests, often Cultivated"
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Miscellaneous Details

"Seeds are dispersed by birds. Food plant of Olive green Hawkmouth. Fruits edible and pickled. Wood used to make combs and spoons, thorny branches used as fencing material."
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Shrub
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Distribution

"
Global Distribution

Indo-Malesia

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
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"Found in deciduous forest from plains to 900m. Occasional. India, Sri Lanka and Myanmar."
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"Karnataka: Hassan Kerala: Alapuzha, Idukki, Kollam, Thiruvananthapuram, Thrissur Tamil Nadu: All districts"
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Distribution: Cultivated throughout India, Ceylon, Burma, Malacca, Pakistan. Possibly native in S.E. Asia.
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India, Nepal, Ceylon, Burma, Malaysia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

"
Flower

In terminal or axillary, 2 to 3-chotomous cymes;white, showy. Flowering from March-April.

Fruit

An ellipsoid berry; tinged red, ripening dark blue; seeds 4, ellipsoid, glabrous. Fruiting April onwards.

Field tips

Bark yellowish-brown. Young fruits green coloured and tinged with red. Latex white.

Leaf Arrangement

Opposite-decussate

Leaf Type

Simple

Leaf Shape

Obovate or oblanceolate

Leaf Apex

Obtuse or emarginate

Leaf Base

Acute to cuneate

Leaf Margin

Entire

"
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Description

Branches dichotomous, spreading, glabrous, spines 2-2.5 cm long, stout, mostly straight, sometimes bifurcate. Leaves broadly ovate, 4-8 x 2-3.5 cm, sub-coriaceous, young leaves with pink midribs, margin smooth, base rounded or retuse, apex emarginate. Flowers white, often tinged with pink, c. 2 cm across, bracts subulate, hairy, peduncle pink, c. 1.2-2 cm long. Calyx c. 5 mm long, pubescent, lobes linear. Corolla tube cylindrical, glabrous, swollen and pubescent near the top, 1.5-2 cm long, lobes white tinged with pink, overlapping to the right in bud, lanceolate, acute. Ovary glabrous with 4 ovules in each cell. Fruit 1.25-2.5 cm long, globose, ovoid or ellipsoid berry, when ripe white with red shade then purplish black, having milky juice, 4-8 seeded.
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Description

Shrubs, small trees, or climbers to 5 m tall. Spines simple or forked, to 5 cm. Leaf blade broadly ovate to oblong, 3-7 X 1.5-4 cm, base broadly cuneate to rounded, apex short apiculate; lateral veins ca. 8 pairs, ascending, convergent, anastomosing near margin. Cymes terminal, usually 3-flowered; peduncle 1.5-2.5 cm; bracteoles minute. Flowers fragrant. Pedicel about as long as calyx or slightly longer. Sepals 2.5-7 mm, with many basal glands inside. Corolla white or pale rose; tube to 2 cm, puberulent inside; lobes lanceolate, ca. 1 cm, acute, overlapping to right, puberulent, ciliate. Ovules numerous in each locule. Berries reddish purple, ellipsoid, 1.5-2.5 X 1-2 cm. Fl. Mar-Jun, fr. Jul-Dec. 2n = 22.
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Elevation Range

100-170 m
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Habit: A large thorny shrub, upto 4m."
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Diagnostic

"Armed shrubs, latex milky, dichotomously branched, spines forked at apex, 4.5 cm. Leaves 6 x 3.5 cm, elliptic-oblong, apex obtuse or emarginate, subcoriaceous; petiole to 0.5 cm. Cymes axillary and terminal, corymbose, puberulus; flowers white; calyx 5-lobed, 2.5 mm ,ovate, , aristate; corolla hypocrateriform, tube 2 cm, pubescent, twisted, 7 x 3 mm, ovate, pubescent; stamens 2.5 mm, obtuse, mucronate, sessile; ovary 1 mm, stigma fusiform, twisted. Berry 2.5 cm across, black when ripe."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Shrub/small tree
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Synonym

Arduina carandas (Linnaeus) K. Schumann; Damna-canthus esquirolii H. Léveillé.
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"Dry deciduous forests, also grown in homesteads"
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General Habitat

"Common in plains and scrub jungles along river banks upto 900m.India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Burma, Malaysia."
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Habitat & Distribution

Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Taiwan [India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand]
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: January-June
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Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: March-May.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Carissa carandas

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Carissa carandas

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 12
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

"Fruits are edible, the immature fruits are pickled. The thorny branches are used for fencing."
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Folklore

Indigenous Information: Fruits are eaten.
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Uses

Medicinal
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Wikipedia

Carissa carandas

Carissa carandas is a species of flowering shrub in the dogbane family, Apocynaceae. It produces berry-sized fruitsphoto that are commonly used as a condiment in Indian pickles and spices. It is a hardy, drought-tolerant plant that thrives well in a wide range of soils. Common names include karonda (Devanagari: करोंदा), karamardaka (Sanskrit), vakkay (Telugu), kilaakkaai/கிலாக்காய் (Tamil). Other names less widely used include: karau(n)da, karanda, or karamda. It is called kerenda in Malaya, karaunda in Malaya and India; Bengal currant or Christ's thorn in South India; nam phrom, or namdaeng in Thailand; and caramba, caranda, caraunda and perunkila in the Philippines.[1] In Assam it is called Karja tenga. In Bengali it is called as Koromcha.

The supposed varieties congesta and paucinervia actually refer to the related conkerberry (C. spinarum).

Distribution[edit]

Carissa carandas grows naturally in the Himalayas at elevations of 300 to 1800 meters, in the Siwalik Hills, the Western Ghats and in Nepal and Afghanistan. It flourishes well in regions with high temperatures. In India it is grown on a limited scale in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Bihar, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh. It is also grows in the Sri Lanka lowland rain forests.

Propagation[edit]

The plant is grown from seed sown in August and September. Vegetative propagation also is practiced in the form of budding and inarching. Cuttings may also succeed. The first monsoon shower is planting time. Plants raised from seed start bearing two years after planting. Flowering starts in March and in Northern India the fruit ripens from July to September.

Uses[edit]

Carissa carandas fruits ready for consumption

The fruit is a rich source of iron, so it sometimes used in treatment of anaemia.[citation needed] It contains a fair amount of Vitamin C and therefore is an antiscorbutic.

Mature fruit is harvested for pickles. It contains pectin and accordingly is a useful ingredient in jelly, jam, syrup and chutney. Ripe fruits exude a white latex when severed from the branch.

The roots of the plant are heavily branched, making it valuable for stabilizing eroding slopes.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Morton, J. 1987. Karanda. p. 422–424. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL.
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Notes

Comments

Fruit edible, also extensively grown as a hedge plant.
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Comments

Cultivated for its edible fruit, which can be eaten raw, made into jelly, or used for pies.
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