State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts"
In terminal or axillary, 2 to 3-chotomous cymes;white, showy. Flowering from March-April.
An ellipsoid berry; tinged red, ripening dark blue; seeds 4, ellipsoid, glabrous. Fruiting April onwards.
Bark yellowish-brown. Young fruits green coloured and tinged with red. Latex white.
Obovate or oblanceolate
Obtuse or emarginate
Acute to cuneate
Habitat & Distribution
Life History and Behavior
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Carissa carandas
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Carissa carandas
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 12
Species With Barcodes: 1
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Carissa carandas is a species of flowering shrub in the dogbane family, Apocynaceae. It produces berry-sized fruitsphoto that are commonly used as a condiment in Indian pickles and spices. It is a hardy, drought-tolerant plant that thrives well in a wide range of soils. Common names include karonda (Devanagari: करोंदा), karamardaka (Sanskrit), vakkay (Telugu), maha karamba/මහ කරඹ (sinhala), kilaakkaai/கிலாக்காய் (Tamil). Other names less widely used include: karau(n)da, karanda, or karamda. It is called kerenda in Malaya, karaunda in Malaya and India; Bengal currant or Christ's thorn in South India; nam phrom, or namdaeng in Thailand; and caramba, caranda, caraunda and perunkila in the Philippines. In Assam it is called Karja tenga. In Bengali it is called as Koromcha.
Carissa carandas grows naturally in the Himalayas at elevations of 300 to 1800 meters, in the Siwalik Hills, the Western Ghats and in Nepal and Afghanistan. It flourishes well in regions with high temperatures. In India it is grown on a limited scale in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Bihar, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh. It is also grows in the Sri Lanka lowland rain forests.
Leaves - opposite, obovte to oblong, cuneate base, obtuse apex, entire margin.
Trunk - simple spines at alternate nodes; milky latex.
Flowers - white or pink, in 3's, in axillary and terminal clusters.
Fruits - reddish purple berries.
The plant is grown from seed sown in August and September. Vegetative propagation also is practiced in the form of budding and inarching. Cuttings may also succeed. The first monsoon shower is planting time. Plants raised from seed start bearing two years after planting. Flowering starts in March and in Northern India the fruit ripens from July to September.
Isolation of many terpenoids has been reported. In particular mixture of sesquiterpenes namely carissone  and carindone as a novel type of C31 terpenoid have been reported. Other products include pentacyclic triterpenoid carissin.
Mature fruit is harvested for pickles. It contains pectin and accordingly is a useful ingredient in jelly, jam, syrup and chutney. Ripe fruits exude a white latex when severed from the branch.
The roots of the plant are heavily branched, making it valuable for stabilizing eroding slopes.
- <Khare CP. Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary Springer Berlin; 2007 pg. 123.
- Lim TK. Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants; Volume 1, Fruits Springer Berlin; 2012. p. 240–245.
- Morton, J. 1987. Karanda. p. 422–424. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL.
- V Devmurari, P Shivanand, MB Goyani, S Vaghani, NP Jivani. Carissa Congesta: Phytochemical constituents, traditional use and pharmacological properties 2009; 3: 375-377.
- J. Reisch, R. Hussain, B. Krebs, M. Dartmann. The structure of carissone. Monatshefte fuer Chemie 121(11): 941-4 (1990).
- B. Singh, R.P. Rastogi . The structure of carindone. Phytochemistry, 11(5):1797-801 (1972).
- Siddiqui BS, Ghani U, Ali ST, Usmani SB, Begum S. Triterpenoidal constituents of the leaves of Carissa carandas. Natural Product Research. 2003; 17:153-8.
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