Ecology

Habitat

Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Depth range based on 3 specimens in 2 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 3 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 5.5 - 1280
  Temperature range (°C): 1.609 - 3.839
  Nitrate (umol/L): 8.841 - 17.879
  Salinity (PPS): 31.883 - 34.923
  Oxygen (ml/l): 6.206 - 8.082
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.072 - 1.258
  Silicate (umol/l): 11.410 - 25.014

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 5.5 - 1280

Temperature range (°C): 1.609 - 3.839

Nitrate (umol/L): 8.841 - 17.879

Salinity (PPS): 31.883 - 34.923

Oxygen (ml/l): 6.206 - 8.082

Phosphate (umol/l): 1.072 - 1.258

Silicate (umol/l): 11.410 - 25.014
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth range based on 3417 specimens in 10 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 2594 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 4766
  Temperature range (°C): -1.901 - 26.923
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.007 - 43.962
  Salinity (PPS): 18.065 - 38.929
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.499 - 9.319
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.055 - 3.251
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.791 - 145.708

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 4766

Temperature range (°C): -1.901 - 26.923

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.007 - 43.962

Salinity (PPS): 18.065 - 38.929

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.499 - 9.319

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.055 - 3.251

Silicate (umol/l): 0.791 - 145.708
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:95Public Records:20
Specimens with Sequences:46Public Species:3
Specimens with Barcodes:45Public BINs:4
Species:6         
Species With Barcodes:5         
          
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Limacina

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Genomic DNA is available from 1 specimen with morphological vouchers housed at State Herbarium of South Australia
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© Ocean Genome Legacy

Source: Ocean Genome Resource

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Wikipedia

Limacina

Limacina is a genus of swimming predatory sea snails commonly known as sea butterflies in the family Limacinidae. This genus contains some of the world's most abundant gastropod species.[2][3]

Etymological meaning of the generic name Limacina is "snail-like".[4]

As pelagic marine gastropods, Limacina swim by flapping their parapodia, inspiring the common name sea butterflies.

Sea butterflies are part of the clade Thecosomata. Sea angels, similar to Limacina, are in the order Gymnosomata. Both of these orders are still referred to as "pteropods". Sea butterflies of the order Thecosomata have a shell, while sea angels in the order Gymnosomata do not.

Contents

Shell description

The shells of Limacina are well developed, sinistrally coiled, turret-like, and include an operculum. Shell size and thickness vary within the genus. At high latitudes, the diameter of the shell does not exceed 15 mm. At lower latitudes, the diameter varies from 1 to 3 mm.

Description of the soft parts

Two large winglike parapodia, derived from foot tissue, propel these invertebrates through the water column to overcome negative buoyancy due to the animal's shell. As diel vertical migrators, Limacina inhabit deeper waters during the day and travel to the surface at night to feed.

Life habits

Feeding habits of Limacina are characterized by actively feeding on planktonic organisms such as bacteria, small crustaceans, gastropod larvae, dinoflagellates and diatoms. These prey items become entangled in a mucosal web (up to 5 cm wide) excreted by the animal that is, in turn, eaten along with the prey items. This net also provides positive buoyancy. Ciliated posterior footlobes and lateral footlobes move food collected by the mucosal web into the mouth.

Large aggregations of Limacina migrating to the surface of the water attract predators such as Clione (family Clionidae, suborder Gymnosomata), baleen whales, various species of salmonids, herring,[5] and seabirds.

Species

Species within the genus Limacina include:

Species brought into synonymy

References

  1. ^ Bosc L. A. G. (1817). "Cléodore". Nouveau Dictionnaire d’Histoire naturelle 7: 188.
  2. ^ a b Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S. (2012). Limacina. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=138122 on 2012-07-18
  3. ^ http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=yIAfwz5cxPMC&oi=fnd&pg=PA6
  4. ^ Woodward S. P. (1854). A manual of the Mollusca; or, A rudimentary treatise of recent and fossil shells. 2: 207. London.
  5. ^ Quarterly research reports for Auke Bay Lab, July-Sept 2005 - page 1
  6. ^ WoRMS (2010). Limacina antarctica Woodward, 1854. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=509607 on 2011-01-29
  7. ^ a b Janssen A. W. (2007). "Holoplanktonic Mollusca (Gastropoda: Pterotracheoidea, Janthinoidea, Thecosomata and Gymnosomata) from the Pliocene of Pangasinan (Luzon, Philippines)". Scripta Geologica 137 http://www.scriptageologica.nl/07/nr135/a02
  8. ^ a b c d e Cahuzac B. & Janssen A. W. (2010). "Eocene to Miocene holoplanktonic Mollusca (Gastropoda) of the Aquitaine Basin, southwest France". Scripta Geologica 141: http://www.scriptageologica.nl/10/nr141/a01
  9. ^ a b c d Janssen A. W. (2010). "Pteropods (Mollusca, Euthecosomata) from the Early Eocene of Rotterdam (The Netherlands)". Scripta Geologica 07 http://www.scriptageologica.nl/10/nr007/a09
  • Vaught, K.C. (1989). A classification of the living Mollusca. American Malacologists: Melbourne, FL (USA). ISBN 0-915826-22-4. XII, 195 pp.
  • Gofas, S.; Le Renard, J.; Bouchet, P. (2001). Mollusca, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 180–213
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