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Overview

Brief Summary

Datura stramonium is a flowering plant native to certain tropical and subtropical regions in the Americas as well as some Old World tropics and subtropics. It is an invasive alien species in the North American and other temperate zones, producing considerable damage to crops. Herbicidal control of this weedy species is often undertaken by use of the triazinone herbicide Metribuzin.

Known by a common name of Jimsonweed, this broadleaf annual erect herb manifests as a shrub up to 150 cm high. The toothed leaves are soft and irregularly undulate, while the creamy white fragrant flowers are trumpet-shaped; flowers sometimes range to a violet hue and may extend to a length of approximately 90 millimeters. These flowers usually do not open fully. The ovate seed capsule is approximately three cm in length and is sometimes spine covered.
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Jimsonweed (Datura stramonium) is well known for its toxicity to humans. The common name "Jimsonweed" is reportedly due to mass poisoning experienced by British troops who were sent to the Jamestown colony in Virginia in 1676 to suppress Bacon's Rebellion (Beverley 1705). Jimsonweed may be picked and consumed accidentally by individuals mistaking the leaves for those of another plant. More commonly, various parts (including seeds from the spiny pod, leaves, and twigs) may be consumed intentionally in order to experience their psychoactive effects (although these effects are often described even by enthusiasts of psychotropic drugs as extremely violent and unpleasant, as are accompanying symptoms). Consuming Jimsonweed is considered a dangerous practice that can even result in death. Both this and other Datura species, however, have been used in traditional spiritual practices by various New World indigenous peoples. According to Schultes (1976), Jimsonweed is believed to have been the main ingredient in wysoccan, which was used by the Algonquin Indians of eastern North America as part of the ritual of initiation into manhood.

As in other members of the genus Datura, the main active agents in Jimsonweed are the anticholinergic  tropane alkaloids hyoscyaminescopolamine, and atropine, although many other physiologically active alkaloids may also be present. Alkaloid composition and concentration may vary among plant parts as well as among individual plants. Krenzelok (2010) reviewed medical aspects of Jimsonweed poisoning and its treatment. According to Krenzelok, treatment is mainly supportive, with the careful use of the cholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine in more severe cases of poisoning.

Jimsonweed may be native to North America, probably Mexico, but it is now widespread in vacant lots, along roadsides, and in other "waste places" in temperate and warm regions around the world. Jimsonweed can be a serious agricultural weed in maize and other crops. The large white to purplish trumpet-shaped flowers open in the early evening (for up to 24 hours) and are pollinated by evening-flying moths. Despite the apparent floral adaptations for moth pollination, Jimsonweed has a very high rate of self fertilization, often greater than 95% (although it may be as low as 80% for some individual plants). The factor that has been identified as most strongly contributing to this variation in outcrossing rate is the position of the stigma, i.e., whether it overlaps or protrudes above the anthers.

(Schultes 1976; Motten and Stone 2000 and references therein; Mabberley 2008; Krenzelok 2010)

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Comprehensive Description

Description

Erect, usually dichotomously branched annual or short-lived perennial herb, up to 1.5 m tall. Branches often purple-tinged and glandular, hairless or sparsely hairy when young; all parts unpleasantly scented. Leaves alternate, ovate, rhombic-ovate to elliptic, up to 20 × 15 cm, thinly textured, almost hairless to minutely pubescent, particularly near the base; base sometimes decurrent into the petiole; margin coarsely and irregularly toothed. Flowers solitary in the forks of the branches, erect. Calyx long and tube-like, up to 2.5-5 cm long, 5-angled with triangular-lanceolate unequal apical lobes, 4-10 mm long. Corolla white to pale mauve-purple, sometimes darker purple in the tube, 6-11 cm long, slightly 5-6-lobed with narrow acuminate tips. Fruit erect, almost round to ovoid-ellipsoid, up to 5 × 4.5 cm (including spines), densely covered with slender unequal spines, up to 16 mm long, yellow-green to brown when ripe, regularly dehiscent. All parts of the plant are poisonous.
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Derivation of specific name

stramonium: a name used by Theophrastus for this species
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Comments

The common name 'Jimsonweed' is probably a corruption of 'Jamestown Weed,' referring to where this species was first observed in North America. Another common name that is often used for this species is 'Thornapple.' Two varieties of Jimsonweed have been described. The typical variety has green stems and white flowers, while var. tatula has purple stems and either pale violet or purple-striped flowers. Jimsonweed has a distinct appearance, making it easy to identify.
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Description

This adventive plant is a summer annual about 3-5' tall that branches dichotomously. The stems are green or purple and largely hairless, although young stems often have conspicuous hairs. The alternate leaves are up to 8" long and 6" across (excluding the petioles). They are ovate or ovate-cordate in outline, but pinnately lobed. These lobes are somewhat shallow and pointed at their tips; there are usually 2-3 of these lobes on each side of the leaf blade. The margin of each leaf may have a few secondary lobes or coarse dentate teeth, otherwise it is smooth or slightly undulate. The leaves may be slightly pubescent when young, but become hairless with age; the upper surface of each leaf is often dark green and dull. The foliage of Jimsonweed exudes a bitter rank odor.  Individual flowers occur where the stems branch dichotomously; the upper stems also terminate in individual flowers. The funnelform corolla of each flower is up to 5" long and 2" across when fully open; its outer rim has 5 shallow lobes. Each of these lobes forms an acute point in the middle.The corolla is white or pale violet throughout, except at the throat of the flower, where thick veins of dark violet occur. The light green calyx is shorter than the corolla and conspicuously divided along its length by 5 membranous wings. The blooming period occurs from mid-summer to early fall and lasts about 2 months. The flowers usually don't open up until midnight and close early in the morning; less often, the flowers may bloom toward the middle of the day, especially when it is cloudy. Individual flowers last only a single day. Each flower is replaced by a hard fruit that is dry and spiny; it is about 1½" long, 1" across, and spheroid-ovoid in shape. Underneath each fruit is a truncated remnant of the calyx that curves sharply downward. These fruits are initially green, but become brown with maturity; they divide into 4 segments to release the seeds. The large seeds are dull, irregular, and dark-colored; their surface may be pitted or slightly reticulated. The root system consists of taproot that is shallow for the size of the plant; it branches frequently. Jimsonweed spreads by reseeding itself. Cultivation
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Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Moist Deciduous Forests"
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Shrub Distribution notes: Exotic
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Distribution

Worldwide distribution

Native to North America. Now an almost cosmopolitan weed.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Range and Habitat in Illinois

Jimsonweed is a fairly common plant that has been observed in most counties of Illinois (see Distribution Map). It is probably adventive from tropical America and it was first observed in the United States at the Jamestown colony during the 17th century. Typical habitats include cropland (particularly corn fields), fallow fields, old feed lots, piles of soil at construction sites, mounds of decomposed mulch and discarded vegetation, urban vacant lots, and miscellaneous waste areas. Disturbed areas are strongly preferred. Faunal Associations
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"Kerala: Pathanamthitta Tamil Nadu: Coimbatore, Namakkal, Nilgiri, Salem, Tiruvannamalai"
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"
Global Distribution

Widely distributed most parts of the temperate regions of the world

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
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Distribution in Egypt

Nile region.

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Global Distribution

Cosmopolitan.

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Throughout China [native of Mexico, now worldwide]
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Distribution: In most temperate and subtropical regions of both the hemispheres.
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Tropical America, widely cultivated and naturalised.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plant 60-120 cm or more tall, branched, pubescent; the branches often purplish. Leaves 8-17 x 4-13 cm, ovate or broadly so, sinuately dentate, minutely puberulose, cuneate. Petiole 2-5 cm long. Calyx 3.5-5.5 cm long, tubular, 5-dentate, puberulous, persistent. Lobes 6-9 mm long, strongly reflexed in fruit, apiculate. Corolla 7-10 cm long, white or purplish suffused; limb up to 8 cm broad. shallowy 5-lobed, with the lobes, ± triangular-acuminate. Anthers ± 5 mm long, with the lobes narrow oblong, usually white. Capsule erect, 3-4 cm long, ovoid, spiny and densely pubescent, splitting by 4 valves; spines up to 5 mm long. Seeds 3 mm long, reniform, reticulate-foveolate, black.
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Elevation Range

200-2200 m
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Description

Herbs or subshrubs, sometimes robust, 0.5-1.5 m tall, glabrescent. Petiole 3-5.5 cm; leaf blade broadly ovate, 8-17 × 4-14 cm, membranous, glabrescent, base asymmetric, cuneate, irregularly sinuous or dentate-lobed, apex acuminate, veins 3-5 pairs. Flowers erect. Pedicel 5-12 mm. Calyx tubular, 5-angular, 3-5 cm. Corolla white or pale purple, greenish at base, sometimes purple distally, funnelform; limb 3-5 cm in diam.; lobes 6-10 cm, mucronate at apex. Filaments ca. 3 cm; anthers 3-4 mm. Capsules erect, globose or ovoid, 3-4.5 × 2-4 cm, with copious prickles, rarely smooth, dehiscent by 4 equal valves, subtended by remnants of persistent calyx. Seeds black, ovate or discoid, ca. 4 mm in diam. Fl. Jun-Oct, fr. Jul-Nov.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Plant 60-120 cm or more tall, branched, pubescent; the branches often purplish. Leaves 8-17 x 4-13 cm, ovate or broadly so, sinuately dentate, minutely puberulose, cuneate. Petiole 2-5 cm long. Calyx 3.5-5.5 cm long, tubular, 5-dentate, puberulous, persistent. Lobes 6-9 mm long, strongly reflexed in fruit, apiculate. Corolla 7-10 cm long, white or purplish suffused; limb up to 8 cm broad, shallowly 5-lobed, with the lobes, ± triangular-acuminate. Anthers ± 5 mm long, with the lobes narrow oblong, usually white. Capsule erect, 3-4 cm long, ovoid, spiny and densely pubescent, splitting by 4 valves; spines up to 5 mm long. Seeds 3 mm long, reniform, reticulate-foveolate, and black."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Herb/Undershrub
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Synonym

Datura stramonium var. tatula (Linnaeus) Torrey; D. tatula Linnaeus.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Jimsonweed is a fairly common plant that has been observed in most counties of Illinois (see Distribution Map). It is probably adventive from tropical America and it was first observed in the United States at the Jamestown colony during the 17th century. Typical habitats include cropland (particularly corn fields), fallow fields, old feed lots, piles of soil at construction sites, mounds of decomposed mulch and discarded vegetation, urban vacant lots, and miscellaneous waste areas. Disturbed areas are strongly preferred. Faunal Associations
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General Habitat

Scrub jungles and wastelands
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Waste places.

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Near houses, roadsides, grasslands; 600-1600 m.
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Associations

Foodplant / miner
larva of Tuta absoluta mines fruit of Datura stramonium

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Population Biology

Frequency

Common
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: July-September
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Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: June-July.
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Life Expectancy

Annual.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Datura stramonium

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Datura stramonium

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 9
Specimens with Barcodes: 28
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Datura stramonium L.

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GU - Unrankable

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Management

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Medicinal
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Risks

Jimsonweed (Datura stramonium) is well known for its toxicity to humans. The common name "Jimsonweed" is reportedly due to mass poisoning experienced by British troops who were sent to the Jamestown colony in Virginia in 1676 to suppress Bacon's Rebellion (Beverley 1705). Jimsonweed may be picked and consumed accidentally by individuals mistaking the leaves for those of another plant. More commonly, various parts (including seeds from the spiny pod, leaves, and twigs) may be consumed intentionally in order to experience their psychoactive effects (although these effects are often described even by enthusiasts of psychotropic drugs as extremely violent and unpleasant, as are accompanying symptoms). Consuming Jimsonweed is considered a dangerous practice that can even result in death. Both this and other Datura species, however, have been used in traditional spiritual practices by various New World indigenous peoples. According to Schultes (1976), Jimsonweed is believed to have been the main ingredient in wysoccan, which was used by the Algonquin Indians of eastern North America as part of the ritual of initiation into manhood.

As in other members of the genus Datura, the main active agents in Jimsonweed are the anticholinergic  tropane alkaloids hyoscyaminescopolamine, and atropine, although many other physiologically active alkaloids may also be present. Alkaloid composition and concentration may vary among plant parts as well as among individual plants. Krenzelok (2010) reviewed medical aspects of Jimsonweed poisoning and its treatment. According to Krenzelok, treatment is mainly supportive, with the careful use of the cholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine in more severe cases of poisoning.

Jimsonweed may be native to North America, probably Mexico, but it is now widespread in vacant lots, along roadsides, and in other "waste places" in temperate and warm regions around the world. Jimsonweed can be a serious agricultural weed in maize and other crops.

(Schultes 1976; Mabberley 2008; Krenzelok 2010)

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Wikipedia

Datura stramonium

This article is about the hallucinogenic "loco weed". For the plant toxic to livestock, see Locoweed.

Datura stramonium, known by the common names Jimson weed, Devil's snare or datura, is a plant in the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. It is believed to have originated in the Americas, but is now found around the world.[1] Other common names for D. stramonium include thornapple and moon flower,[2] and it has the Spanish name Toloache.[3] Other names for the plant include Hell's Bells, Devil’s Trumpet, Devil’s Weed, Tolguacha, Jamestown Weed, Stinkweed, Locoweed, Pricklyburr and Devil’s Cucumber.[4]

For centuries, datura has been used as a herbal medicine to relieve asthma symptoms and as an analgesic during surgery or bonesetting. It is also a powerful hallucinogen and deliriant, which is used spiritually for the intense visions it produces. However, the tropane alkaloids which are responsible for both the medicinal and hallucinogenic properties are fatally toxic in only slightly higher amounts than the medicinal dosage, and careless use often results in hospitalizations and deaths.

Description[edit]

D. stramonium is a foul-smelling, erect annual, freely branching herb that forms a bush up to 2 to 5 feet (60–150 cm) tall.[5][6][7]

The root is long, thick, fibrous and white. The stem is stout, erect, leafy, smooth, and pale yellow-green. The stem forks off repeatedly into branches, and at each fork forms a leaf and a single, erect flower.[7]

The leaves are approximately 3 to 8 inches (8–20 cm) long, smooth, toothed,[6] soft, irregularly undulate.[7] The upper surface of the leaves is a darker green, and the bottom is a light green.[6] The leaves have a bitter and nauseating taste, which is imparted to extracts of the herb, and remains even after the leaves have been dried.[8]

Datura stramonium generally flowers throughout the summer. The fragrant flowers are trumpet-shaped, white to creamy or violet, and 2 12 to 3 12 inches (6–9 cm) long, and grow on short stems from either the axils of the leaves or the places where the branches fork. The calyx is long and tubular, swollen at the bottom, and sharply angled, surmounted by five sharp teeth. The corolla, which is folded and only partially open, is white, funnel-shaped, and has prominent ribs. The flowers open at night, emitting a pleasant fragrance and is fed upon by nocturnal moths.[7]

The egg-shaped seed capsule is 1 to 3 inches (3–8 cm) in diameter and either covered with spines or bald. At maturity it splits into four chambers, each with dozens of small black seeds.[7]

Datura stramonium - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-051.jpg
Fruits and seeds - MHNT

Range and habitat[edit]

Datura stramonium is native to North America, but was spread to the Old World early. It was scientifically described and named by Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in 1753, although it had been described a century earlier by herbalists, such as Nicholas Culpeper.[9] Today, it grows wild in all the world's warm and moderate regions, where it is found along roadsides and at dung-rich livestock enclosures.[10][11][12] In Europe, it is found as a weed on wastelands and in garbage dumps.[10]

The seed is thought to be carried by birds and spread in their droppings. Its seeds can lie dormant underground for years and germinate when the soil is disturbed. People who discover it growing in their gardens, and are worried about its toxicity, have been advised to dig it up or have it otherwise removed.[13]

Toxicity[edit]

Main article: Datura: Toxicity

All parts of Datura plants contain dangerous levels of the tropane alkaloids atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine which are classified as deliriants, or anticholinergics. There is a high risk of fatal overdose amongst uninformed users, and many hospitalizations occur amongst recreational users who ingest the plant for its psychoactive effects.[10][14]

The amount of toxins varies widely from plant to plant. There can be as much as a 5:1 variation between plants, and a given plant's toxicity depends on its age, where it is growing, and the local weather conditions.[10] Additionally, within a given datura plant, toxin concentration varies by part and even from leaf to leaf. When the plant is younger, the ratio of scopolamine to atropine is approximately 3:1; after flowering, this ratio is reversed, with the amount of scopolamine continuing to decrease as the plant gets older.[15] This variation makes Datura exceptionally hazardous as a drug. In traditional cultures, a great deal of experience with and detailed knowledge of Datura was critical in order to minimize harm.[10] An individual datura seed contains about 0.1 mg of atropine, and the approximate fatal dose for adult humans is >10 mg atropine or >2–4 mg scopolamine.[16]

Datura intoxication typically produces delirium (as contrasted to hallucination); hyperthermia; tachycardia; bizarre behavior; and severe mydriasis with resultant painful photophobia that can last several days. Pronounced amnesia is another commonly reported effect.[17] The onset of symptoms generally occurs approximately 30 minutes to an hour after smoking the herb. These symptoms generally last from 24 to 48 hours, but have been reported in some cases to last as long as 2 weeks.[18]

As with other cases of anticholinergic poisoning, intravenous physostigmine can be administered in severe cases as an antidote.[19]

Medicinal uses[edit]

D. stramonium var. tatula, flower (front)

Datura has long been used as an extremely effective treatment for asthma symptoms. The active anti-asthmatic agent is atropine, which causes paralysis of the pulmonary branches of the lungs, eliminating the spasms that cause the asthma attacks. The leaves are generally smoked either in a cigarette or a pipe. This practice of smoking datura to relieve asthma has its origins in traditional Ayurvedic medicine in India. After this was discovered during the late 18th century by James Anderson, the English Physician-General of the East India Company, the practice quickly became popular in Europe.[20][21]

The Zuni used to use datura as an analgesic, to render patients unconscious while broken bones were set.[22] The Chinese also used it in this manner, as a form of anaesthesia during surgery.[23]

Atropine and scopolamine (both of which are found in very high concentrations in datura) are muscarinic antagonists which can be used to treat Parkinson's disease and motion sickness, and to inhibit parasympathetic stimulation of the urinary tract, respiratory tract, GI tract, heart and eye.[24]

Datura can be used to assist in the process of breaking drug addictions, by reducing the symptoms of delirium tremens and morphine withdrawals.[23]

Other medicinal uses for datura include providing relief from sore throat or toothache and getting rid of parasites.[25]

Datura should be avoided by patients with heart problems, glaucoma, enlarged prostate, urinary difficulties, fluid buildup in the lungs, or bowel obstructions.[26]

Spiritual uses[edit]

Datura seedpod, opening up to release seeds inside.

The ancient inhabitants of what is today central and southern California used to ingest the small black seeds of datura to "commune with deities through visions".[27] Across the Americas, other indigenous peoples such as the Algonquin, Cherokee, Marie Galente and Luiseño also utilized this plant in sacred ceremonies for its hallucinogenic properties.[24][25][28] In Ethiopia, some students and debtrawoch (lay priests), use D. stramonium to "open the mind" to be more receptive to learning, and creative and imaginative thinking.[29]

The common name "datura" has its roots in ancient India, where the plant is considered particularly sacred—believed to be a favorite of the Hindu god Shiva Nataraja.[21]

Cultivation[edit]

Datura prefers rich, calcareous soil. Adding nitrogen fertilizer to the soil will increase the concentration of alkaloids present in the plant. Datura can be grown from seed, which is sown with several feet between each plant. Datura is sensitive to frost, and so should be sheltered during cold weather. The plant is harvested when the fruits are ripe, but still green. To harvest, the entire plant is cut down, the leaves are stripped from the plant, and everything is left to dry. When the fruits begin to burst open, the seeds are harvested. A single intensively planted acre can produce 1,000 to 1,500 pounds (1,100–1,700 kg/ha) of leaf and 700 pounds (780 kg/ha) of seed.[30]

Etymology[edit]

The genus name is derived from dhatura, an ancient Hindu word for a plant. Stramonium is originally from Greek, strychnos στρύχνος "nightshade" and maniakos μανιακός "mad".[31]

In the United States the plant is called jimson weed, or more rarely Jamestown weed; it got this name from the town of Jamestown, Virginia, where British soldiers consumed it while attempting to suppress Bacon's Rebellion. They spent eleven days in altered mental states:

The James-Town Weed (which resembles the Thorny Apple of Peru, and I take to be the plant so call'd) is supposed to be one of the greatest coolers in the world. This being an early plant, was gather'd very young for a boil'd salad, by some of the soldiers sent thither to quell the rebellion of Bacon (1676); and some of them ate plentifully of it, the effect of which was a very pleasant comedy, for they turned natural fools upon it for several days: one would blow up a feather in the air; another would dart straws at it with much fury; and another, stark naked, was sitting up in a corner like a monkey, grinning and making mows [grimaces] at them; a fourth would fondly kiss and paw his companions, and sneer in their faces with a countenance more antic than any in a Dutch droll.

In this frantic condition they were confined, lest they should, in their folly, destroy themselves — though it was observed that all their actions were full of innocence and good nature. Indeed, they were not very cleanly; for they would have wallowed in their own excrements, if they had not been prevented. A thousand such simple tricks they played, and after eleven days returned themselves again, not remembering anything that had passed.

The History and Present State of Virginia, 1705[32]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Datura stramonium information from NPGS/GRIN". Retrieved 2008-02-05. 
  2. ^ "Jimsonweed". University of Texas El Paso / Austin Cooperative Pharmacy Program & Paso del Norte Health Foundation. Retrieved 2013-02-13. 
  3. ^ "Detailed Information: Jimsonweed". University of Texas El Paso / Austin Cooperative Pharmacy Program & Paso del Norte Health Foundation. Retrieved 2013-02-13. 
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ Stace, Clive (1997). New Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press. p. 532. ISBN 0-521-65315-0. 
  6. ^ a b c Henkel, Alice (1911). "Jimson weed". American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 30. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Grieve, Maud (1971). A Modern Herbal: The Medicinal, Culinary, Cosmetic and Economic Properties, Cultivation and Folk-lore of Herbs, Grasses, Fungi, Shrubs, & Trees with All Their Modern Scientific Uses, Volume 2. Dover Publications. p. 804. ISBN 9780486227993. 
  8. ^ Grieve, Maud (1971). A Modern Herbal: The Medicinal, Culinary, Cosmetic and Economic Properties, Cultivation and Folk-lore of Herbs, Grasses, Fungi, Shrubs, & Trees with All Their Modern Scientific Uses, Volume 2. Dover Publications. p. 805. ISBN 9780486227993. 
  9. ^ Culpeper, Nicholas (n.d.; 20th century edition of 1653 publication), Culpeper's Complete Herbal, Slough: W Foulsham & Co Ltd, pp. 368–369, ISBN 0-572-00203-3 
  10. ^ a b c d e Preissel, Ulrike & Hans-Georg Preissel (2002). Brugmansia and Datura: Angel's Trumpets and Thorn Apples. Firefly Books. pp. 124–125. ISBN 1-55209-598-3. 
  11. ^ Veblen, K.E. (2012). "Savanna glade hotspots: Plant community development and synergy with large herbivores". Journal of Arid Environments 78: 119–127. doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2011.10.016. 
  12. ^ Oudhia P., Tripathi R.S.(1998).Allelopathic potential of Datura stramonium L.. Crop. Res. 16 (1) : 37-40.
  13. ^ Mail Online, Pensioner finds deadly tropical plant made famous in Harry Potter book in her back garden 3:24 PM on 24 August 2009.
  14. ^ AJ Giannini,Drugs of Abuse--Second Edition. Los Angeles, Practice Management Information Corporation, pp.48-51. ISBN 1-57066-053-0.
  15. ^ Nellis, David W. (1997). Poisonous Plants and Animals of Florida and the Caribbean. Pineapple Press. p. 237. ISBN 9781561641116. 
  16. ^ Arnett AM (December 1995). "Jimson Weed (Datura stramonium) poisoning". Clinical Toxicology Review 18 (3). 
  17. ^ Freye, Enno (21 September 2009). Pharmacology and Abuse of Cocaine, Amphetamines, Ecstasy and Related Designer Drugs. Springer Netherlands. pp. 217–218. ISBN 978-90-481-2447-3. 
  18. ^ Pennachio, Marcello et al (2010). Uses and Abuses of Plant-Derived Smoke: Its Ethnobotany As Hallucinogen, Perfume, Incense, and Medicine. Oxford University Press. p. 7. ISBN 9780195370010. 
  19. ^ Goldfrank, Lewis R. & Flommenbaum, Neil (2006). Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies. McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 677. ISBN 9780071479141. 
  20. ^ Barceloux, Donald G. (2008). "Cascara". Medical Toxicology of Natural Substances: Foods, Fungi, Medicinal Herbs, Plants, and Venomous Animals. John Wiley & Sons. p. 1877. ISBN 9781118382769. 
  21. ^ a b Pennachio, Marcello et al (2010). Uses and Abuses of Plant-Derived Smoke: Its Ethnobotany As Hallucinogen, Perfume, Incense, and Medicine. Oxford University Press. p. 6. ISBN 9780195370010. 
  22. ^ Turner, Matt W. (2009). Remarkable Plants of Texas: Uncommon Accounts of Our Common Natives. University of Texas Press. p. 209. ISBN 9780292718517. 
  23. ^ a b Nellis, David W. (1997). Poisonous Plants and Animals of Florida and the Caribbean. Pineapple Press. p. 238. ISBN 9781561641116. 
  24. ^ a b Biaggioni, Italo et al (2011). Primer on the Autonomic Nervous System. Academic Press. p. 77. ISBN 9780123865250. 
  25. ^ a b Pennachio, Marcello et al (2010). Uses and Abuses of Plant-Derived Smoke: Its Ethnobotany As Hallucinogen, Perfume, Incense, and Medicine. Oxford University Press. pp. 82–83. ISBN 9780195370010. 
  26. ^ Miller, Robert L. (2002). The Encyclopedia of Addictive Drugs. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 207. ISBN 9780313318078. 
  27. ^ Austin, Alfredo Lopez et al. (2005). Mexico's Indigenous Past. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 22. ISBN 9780806137230. 
  28. ^ Davis, Wade (1997). The Serpent and the Rainbow: a Harvard scientist's astonishing journey into the secret societies of Haitian voodoo, zombis and magic. Simon & Schuster. p. [page needed]. ISBN 9780684839295. 
  29. ^ Molvaer, Reidulf Knut (1995). Socialization and Social Control in Ethiopia. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 259. ISBN 9783447036627. 
  30. ^ Chopra, I.C. (2006). Indigenous Drugs of India. Academic Publishers. p. 143. ISBN 9788185086804. 
  31. ^ "Datura species". Plants Poisonous to Livestock. Cornell University Department of Animal Science. Retrieved 2010-02-12. 
  32. ^ Beverley, Robert. "Book II: Of the Natural Product and Conveniencies in Its Unimprov'd State, Before the English Went Thither". The History and Present State of Virginia, In Four Parts (University of North Carolina). p. 24 (Book II). Retrieved 2008-12-15. 
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The ‘thorn apple’ is a noxious weed found along roadsides and waste places from 914-2286 m. The plant parts, as in Atropa contain alkaloids as hyoscyamine, which have a powerful narcotic effect. The plant parts are also medicinal; being used in fevers, for worms, skin diseases, boils and indigestion (Dymock et al. Pharmcog. Ind. Reprint. edit. 2:584. 1891).
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Cultivated in gardens as a medicinal and decorative plant. 

 The whole plant is toxic and is used medicinally as anaesthetic and for sedating and relieving muscular spasm. Seed oil can be used for soap making.

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Of unknown origin (Gleason, 1952), but widespread as a weed in most warm-temperate parts of the world.

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