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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

Many varieties and subspecies of Hedge Bindweed have been described that vary in regards to such characteristics as the shape of the basal lobes of their leaves, the relative sizes of their sepals and floral bracts, the relative size of their corollas, and whether 1 or 2 flowers are produced per leaf axil. These varieties and subspecies are not further discussed here, although see Mohlenbrock (2002) for a dichotomous key to those that occur in Illinois. The flowers of Hedge Bindweed are large and showy when they are fully open. They are just as attractive as many cultivated varieties of Ipomoea purpurea (Common Morning Glory). Hedge Bindweed can be readily distinguished from this latter species by the shape of its leaves, which are sagittate-triangular or hastate-triangular with angular to rounded basal lobes. In contrast, the leaves of Common Morning Glory and 2 native species, Ipomoea pandurata (Wild Sweet Potato) and Ipomoea lacunosa (Small White Morning Glory), are more cordate in shape. Another common species, Convolvulus arvensis (Field Bindweed), differs by having smaller sagittate leaves with narrow basal lobes, and its funnelform flowers are also smaller in size (less than 1½" across).
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Description

This is a perennial herbaceous vine up to 10' long that often climbs over other plants, shrubs, and fences. The twining stems are light green to red, glabrous to slightly hairy, and terete; alternate leaves are sparsely to moderately distributed along these stems. The leaves are about 2½-5" long and 1-2" across; they are sagittate-triangular or hastate-triangular in shape, while their margins are smooth and slightly ciliate. The basal lobes of these leaves are rather angular and squared-off in shape, although sometimes they are more rounded. The sinuses of the leaves are strongly indented between the basal lobes and either flattened or rounded. The upper leaf surface is medium green and glabrous (or nearly so), while the lower leaf surface is light green and glabrous to finely hairy. The slender petioles are about one-half as long as the leaves. The large buds produce flowers with funnelform corollas that are 2-3" across and similarly long; they are slightly 5-lobed. These corollas are usually white, although sometimes they are pale pink with spreading white stripes. However, deep within their throats the corollas are yellow. At the base of each flower, there are 5 light green sepals that are largely hidden by a pair of large bracts. These bracts are light to medium green (often with reddish margins), broadly ovate in shape, keeled, and about ½-1½" long. Within the throat of each corolla, there is a white style with a pair of stigmata and 5 stamens (the latter adhere to the corolla). Usually the flowers are produced individually from the axils of the leaves, although there exists one subspecies of Hedge Bindweed (ssp. silvatica) that produces flowers in pairs from the axils of the leaves. The slender peduncles and/or pedicels of these flowers are shorter than the leaves. The flowers open during the morning and usually close at around noon, although they may remain open longer on cloudy days. The blooming period occurs intermittently during the summer for about 1-3 months. However, individual flowers last only a single day. Afterwards, the flowers are replaced by broadly ovoid seed capsules a little less than ½" (about 8-10 mm.) across. At maturity, these capsules split open to release their seeds (2-4 seeds per capsule). These seeds are dull brown to black, 3-angled (two flat sides & one rounded side), and rather irregular in shape; they are a little less than ¼" (about 4-5 mm.) long. The root system is fibrous and rhizomatous, and it may extend into the ground up to 10'. Hedge Bindweed spreads by clonal offshoots from its rhizomes or by reseeding itself. Cultivation
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Hedge Bindweed is common in most areas of Illinois, especially in the central and northern sections of the state (see Distribution Map). This vine is considered a noxious weed in some states, although it is not listed as such in Illinois. In addition to its wide distribution in North America, Hedge Bindweed is also native to Eurasia. It is likely that some populations of this species within the state have been introduced from other areas of North America or Eurasia. Habitats include edges of moist to mesic prairies, railroad prairies, thickets, woodland borders, open floodplain areas along lakes and rivers, edges of cropland, abandoned fields, fence rows, roadsides, areas along railroads, poorly maintained hedges, and urban waste areas. Hedge Bindweed is more common in disturbed areas. Faunal Associations
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Hedge Bindweed is common in most areas of Illinois, especially in the central and northern sections of the state (see Distribution Map). This vine is considered a noxious weed in some states, although it is not listed as such in Illinois. In addition to its wide distribution in North America, Hedge Bindweed is also native to Eurasia. It is likely that some populations of this species within the state have been introduced from other areas of North America or Eurasia. Habitats include edges of moist to mesic prairies, railroad prairies, thickets, woodland borders, open floodplain areas along lakes and rivers, edges of cropland, abandoned fields, fence rows, roadsides, areas along railroads, poorly maintained hedges, and urban waste areas. Hedge Bindweed is more common in disturbed areas. Faunal Associations
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Depth range based on 6 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 1
 
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous, scattered pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta calystegiae causes spots on leaf of Calystegia sepium
Remarks: season: 10

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Emmelina argoteles feeds on live leaf of Calystegia sepium
Remarks: season: 5-late 9

Foodplant / parasite
Erysiphe convolvuli parasitises live Calystegia sepium

Foodplant / open feeder
adult of Longitarsus rubiginosus grazes on leaf of Calystegia sepium

Foodplant / saprobe
gregarious, prominent pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis calystegiae is saprobic on dead, sometimes locally bleached stem of Calystegia sepium
Remarks: season: 1-3

Foodplant / spot causer
elongatedly patchy aecium of Puccinia convolvuli causes spots on live petiole of Calystegia sepium
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous, immersed, brown pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Septoria convolvuli causes spots on fading leaf of Calystegia sepium
Remarks: season: 7-8

Foodplant / spot causer
few, hypophyllous, immersed, pallid pycnidium of Stagonospora coelomycetous anamorph of Stagonospora calystegiae causes spots on fading leaf of Calystegia sepium
Remarks: season: 7-9

Foodplant / gall
Thecaphorella anamorph of Thecaphora seminis-convolvuli causes gall of swollen, stunted anther of Calystegia sepium
Remarks: season: 6-10

Foodplant / feeds on
Thrips fuscipennis feeds on pollen of Calystegia sepium

Foodplant / feeds on
Thrips major feeds on pollen of Calystegia sepium

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Calystegia sepium

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 12
Specimens with Barcodes: 18
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Calystegia sepium

Calystegia sepium (larger bindweed, hedge bindweed, Rutland beauty, bugle vine, heavenly trumpets, bellbind) (formerly Convolvulus sepium) is a species of bindweed, with a subcosmopolitan distribution throughout the temperate Northern and Southern hemispheres.

It is an herbaceous perennial that twines around other plants, in a counter-clockwise direction, to a height of up to 2–4 m, rarely 5 m. The pale matte green leaves are arranged spirally, simple, pointed at the tip and arrowhead shaped, 5–10 cm long and 3–7 cm broad.

The flowers are produced from late spring to the end of summer. In the bud, they are covered by large bracts which remain and continue to cover sepals. The open flowers are trumpet-shaped, 3–7 cm diameter, white, or pale pink with white stripes. After flowering the fruit develops as an almost spherical capsule 1 cm diameter containing two to four large, black seeds that are shaped like quartered oranges. The seeds disperse and thrive in fields, borders, roadsides and open woods.

Several regional subspecies have been described, but they are not considered distinct by all authorities:

Other vernacular names include greater bindweed, bearbind, hedge convolvulus, hooded bindweed, old man's nightcap, wild morning glory, bride's gown, wedlock (referring to the white gown-like flowers and the binding nature of the vine), white witches hat, belle of the ball.

Eradication[edit]

Calystegia sepium flower and foliage.

Calystegia sepium is a plant with showy white flowers. However, because of its quick growth, clinging vines and broad leaves, it can overwhelm and pull down cultivated plants including shrubs and small trees. Its aggressive self-seeding (seeds can remain viable as long as 30 years) and the success of its creeping roots (they can be as long as 3–4 m) cause it to be a persistent weed and have led to its classification as a noxious weed.[who?]

Similar species[edit]

References[edit]

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Several native subspecies (as well as exotic subspecies) of Calystegia sepium recognized by Kartesz (1999), following Brummitt's treatment. Some U.S. reports of "ssp. sepium" as native may instead apply to other subspecies; in sense of Kartesz, ssp. sepium is non-native. Sometimes classified in the genus Convolvulus.

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