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Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Xinjiang, NW Yunnan [India, Japan, Kashmir, Korea, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia; Europe, North America]
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Distribution: Europe, N. and Central Asia, N. America.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

30 cm—1 m tall, slightly hairy or glabrescent. Stem leafy. Leaves 5—25 cm long; leaflets many, lanceolate, acuminate, sessile, 1—4 cm long, 3—8 mm broad. Calyx campanulate, 5—10 mm long, hairy. Corolla funnel-shaped, blue, occasionally white, c. 2 cm in diam., tube very short. Stamens included. Style protruded. Capsule c. 5 mm in diam.. ellipsoid. included in the calyx, dehiscing by 3 valves.
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Description

Stems erect, 30-100 cm, glabrous or sparsely glandular-pubescent above middle. Leaves pinnately compound, 7-14(-25) cm, gradually reduced upward, distal leaves ± sessile; petiole 1.5-8 cm; leaflets 11-27, ovate to lanceolate, 1-4 cm 2-14 mm, glabrous to sparsely pilose. Pedicel 3-5(-10) mm, puberulent to villous, trichomes often minutely glandular. Calyx 5-8 mm; lobes ca. as long as tube, oblong to lanceolate, apex obtuse to acuminate. Corolla violet to blue-violet, broadly campanulate, 1-2 cm; lobes obovate, margin glabrous to sparsely ciliate, apex rounded to ± acute. Stamens ca. as long as corolla, rarely shorter or longer than corolla. Style longer than stamens, slightly exserted. Capsule 5-7 mm. Seeds brown, 3-3.5 mm. Fl. Jun-Aug, fr. Jun-Sep. 2n = 14, 18 + 0-1B.
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Ecology

Habitat

Streambanks or moist sites in meadows, open slopes, open sites in forests; (1000-)1700-3700 m.
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / feeds on
pycnidium of Phoma coelomycetous anamorph of Phoma polemonii feeds on Polemonium caeruleum

Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous, loosely gregarious, immersed pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Phyllosticta polemonii causes spots on fading leaf of Polemonium caeruleum
Remarks: season: 7-8

Foodplant / parasite
telium of Puccinia polemonii parasitises live petiole of Polemonium caeruleum

Foodplant / feeds on
pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Septoria polemonii feeds on Polemonium caeruleum

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per. July—August.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Polemonium caeruleum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Polemonium caeruleum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Polemonium caeruleum

Jacob's Ladder or Greek valerian (Polemonium caeruleum) is a hardy perennial flowering plant. The plant produces cup-shaped, lavender-coloured or white flowers. It is native to temperate regions of Europe.

Growth[edit]

The plant usually reaches a height from 45 to 60 centimeters (18 to 24 inches), but some occasionally will be taller than 90 centimeters (35 inches.) The spread of the plant is also 45 to 60 centimeters. It can grow in North American hardiness zone 2.

Habitat[edit]

The plant is native to damp grasslands, woodlands, meadows and rocky areas in temperate areas of Europe.

Cultivation[edit]

The plant normally prefers soil that is rich in moisture and lime and does not require as much sunlight as other plants. Depending on the conditions, it will need varying amounts of water in the summer. If it is hot summer, the plant may require extra water. If it is an average summer, it probably won't need extra water. Normally hardy, some varieties (e.g. Blue Pearl) behave as tender biennials, which means they are effectively annuals in cooler climates (below hardiness zone 6).

Cultivated varieties include Blue Pearl and Brise d'Anjou. White flowered (Album, White Pearl) and a variegated (Snow and Sapphires) [1] variety are available.

(Cats are attracted to the scent of the plant, particularly younger plants. A person who is growing Greek valerian in a container or home garden should protect the plants if they own a cat.)

Uses[edit]

Historical medical uses[edit]

The plant was first used as a medicinal herb in ancient Greece. The ancient Greeks used the root to treat dysentery, toothaches and animal bites.[citation needed] The plant was also found in a few European pharmacies during the nineteenth century and was used as an antisyphilitic agent and to treat rabies.[citation needed] Today, the plant is not usually used medically.

Other uses[edit]

Polemonium caeruleum was voted the County flower of Derbyshire in 2002 following a poll by the wild plant conservation charity Plantlife.[2]

Today, the plant is usually used in potpourris and is boiled in olive oil to make black dyes and hair dressing, but it has few other significant uses.

Bees work the flowers for both pollen and nectar. Flowers of other species of Polemonium are also useful honey bee forage.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Paghat's Garden: Snow and Sapphires
  2. ^ "County Flowers". Plantlife. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 
  • Biggs, Matthew, Vegetables, Herbs & Fruit: An Illustrated Encyclopedia, (2006) p324-325. Firefly Books Ltd., ISBN 1-55407-126-7
  • Bremness, Lesley, Herbs (Smithsonian Handbooks), (1994-2002) p205. Dorling Kindersley, Inc., ISBN 0-7894-9391-8
  • Howes, F.N., Plants and Beekeeping, (1979) p161 Faber Paperbacks, ISBN 0-571-11358-3

Sources[edit]

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Notes

Comments

Jacob's Ladder is common in cool temperate and subalpine forests all over the northern region of W.Pakistan, 2500—4000 m. Prefers shady places with rich soil and sufficient humidity.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: As treated by Kartesz (1994 checklist), this species is Eurasian; the North American plants are placed instead in P. occidentale, sometimes included here.

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