Regularity: Regularly occurring
Global Range: Endemic to the northern end of the Waianae Mountains of Oahu, Hawaii. The species Bidens amplectens itself is restricted to windward cliffs and crests; elsewhere (from near Kaena Point at least to the head of the Makua Valley) it is involved in hybrid swarms with Bidens torta.
Habitat and Ecology
Comments: Dry shrublands and forests on cliffs and steep rocky slopes.
Number of Occurrences
Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.
Estimated Number of Occurrences: 1 - 20
Comments: Total number of EOs are 9, of those 7 are extant occurrences found only on Oahu. Observation records range from 1987-1999 (HBMP 2007).
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- Needs updating
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: N1 - Critically Imperiled
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Bidens amplectens is known only from the northern end of the Waianae Mountains on the island of Oahu in Hawaii. It grows in low shrubland on cliffs and talus (Russell 2002). Seven occurrences are currently known. The species is thought to number fewer than 1000 individuals (USFWS 2011). It is threatened by feral pigs, goats, invasive alien plants, fire, and grazing.
Environmental Specificity: Unknown
Date Listed: 10/18/2012
Lead Region: Pacific Region (Region 1)
For most current information and documents related to the conservation status and management of Bidens amplectens, see its USFWS Species Profile
Global Short Term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Comments: Known declining due to numerous threats, exact percentage is unknown (HBMP 2007).
Global Long Term Trend: Unknown
Degree of Threat: Very high - high
Comments: Threatened by feral pigs, goats, invasive alien plants, fire, and grazing. Fire and several alien plant species imminently threaten this species.
The Waiʻanae Kokoʻolau (Bidens amplectens) is a species of flowering plant in the family Asteraceae. It belongs to the genus Bidens, collectively called kokoʻolau or koʻokoʻolau in the Hawaiian language. It is found only in dry forests in the Waiʻanae Range on Oʻahu. It is threatened by habitat loss due to the spread of invasive weeds and brushfires.
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