The Geiger-tree (Cordia sebestena) is a shrub or small tree native to the Caribbean region, but widely grown as an ornamental throughout the tropics and subtropics for its showy reddish-orange flowers. Although Florida is sometimes said to fall within its native distribution, it has been argued that it was almost surely introduced to the Florida Keys early in the 19th century, possibly by John Geiger, a ship captain residing in Key West (Hammer 2000; Wunderlin and Hansen 2008). However, Gann et al. (2008) claim that it is, in fact, native to Florida, stating that intensive research in herbaria indicates that this species is native to the Florida Keys and extreme southern mainland.
Cordia sebestena is widely planted as an ornamental throughout the tropics and subtropics. The boundaries of its native range appear to be controversial. It is clearly native to at least some islands of the West Indies, although Little and Wadsworth (1964) specifically state that it is not native to Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands. Its native range is sometimes claimed to include at least parts of Central and South America. There is also controversy about whether this species is actually native to Florida, or whether it was introduced to the Florida Keys in the early 19th century, as many have argued (Hammer 2000; Wunderlin and Hansen 2008. Gann et al. (2008) claim that intensive research in herbaria indicates that this species is indeed native to the Florida Keys and extreme southern mainland. Gann et al. give the native range as "south Florida, the West Indies, southern Mexico, and Central America".
Regularity: Regularly occurring
The Geiger-tree (Cordia sebestena) is a shrub or small tree (reaching about 7 to 8 m height, 15 cm diameter). The thick evergreen leaves are broad (10 to 20 cm long and 5 to 10 cm wide), long-pointed at the apex, and often toothed on the edges; leaves are very rough on the upper surface and usually hairy below. Twigs are hairy. The tubular, orange-to-red flowers (present year round) are about 4 cm across and clustered at the ends of twigs. The white, pointed, pear-shaped fruits are about 2.5 to 5 cm long with a large seed. (Little and Wadsworth 1964; Petrides 1988)
Habitat and Ecology
Cordia sebestena grows in poor soils and on seashores (Petrides 1988) and is often planted as an ornamental (Little and Wadsworth 1964). It flourishes in dry soils and is tolerant of salt conditions (Seddon and Lennox 1980). Gann et al. (2008) describe the habitat in South Florida as coastal berm, disturbed upland, and rockland hammock.
Life History and Behavior
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Occurs in southern Florida, most of the Antilles, the northern coast of South America, and in Yucatan, Mexico (Record, 1924).
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
The fruit of Cordia sebestena is edible, but not commonly eaten by people (Whistler 2000). The dark brown wood is heavy, hard, and close-grained and has been used in Latin America to make cabinets and furniture (Elias 1980).
Cordia sebestena is a species of flowering plant in the borage family, Boraginaceae, that is native to the American tropics. It ranges from southern Florida in the United States and The Bahamas southwards throughout Central America and the Greater Antilles. Common names include siricote or kopté (Mayan) in 19th Century northern Yucatán, scarlet cordia on Jamaica, and Geiger Tree (after Key West wrecker John Geiger) in Florida.
Cordia sebestena is widely planted throughout the tropics and subtropics as an ornamental plant in gardens because of its flowers. It has dark green, oval shaped leaves, and grows oval shaped fruits that are edible, but not flavorful. Cordia sebestena tolerates drought but not frost.
tree in Hyderabad, India.
fruits in Hyderabad, India.
flowers & leaves in Hyderabad, India.
flower buds in Hyderabad, India.
fallen fruit in Hyderabad, India.
leaves in Hyderabad, India.
trunk in Hyderabad, India.
- "Taxon: Cordia sebestena". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 1997-03-24. Retrieved 2013-02-25.
- Heilprin, Angelo (July–December 1891). "Observations on the flora of North Yucatan". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 29 (136): 137–44.
- "Bats Of Jamaica". Museum, University of Nebraska State. Retrieved 2011-06-20.
- Nelson, Gil (1996). The Shrubs and Woody Vines of Florida: a Reference and Field Guide. Pineapple Press Inc. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-56164-110-9.