Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Spanish (1) (learn more)

Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution in Egypt

Mediterranean region (Mersa Matruh).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Distribution

Atlantic Islands, west Europe, Mediterranean region.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution: Native to Europe; ornamental and weedy in many places.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description

A hairy branched biennial up to 50 cm tall. Basal leaves 30-120 x 12-15 mm, ovate; upper cauline leaves narrow lanceolate, with a ± cordate base. Corolla 15-20 mm long, blue or deep blue, occasionally white, sparsely hairy on the outside. Stamens 2, exserted.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Coastal sandy soils.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Foodplant / parasite
cleistothecium of Golovinomyces cynoglossi parasitises live Echium plantagineum

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: April.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Expectancy

Annual or short-lived perennial.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Echium plantagineum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Echium plantagineum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Echium plantagineum

Echium plantagineum, commonly known as purple viper's bugloss or Paterson's curse, is a species of Echium native to western and southern Europe (from southern England south to Iberia and east to the Crimea), northern Africa, and southwestern Asia (east to Georgia).[1][2] It has also been introduced to Australia, South Africa and United States, where it is an invasive weed. Due to a high concentration of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, it is poisonous to grazing livestock, especially those with simple digestive systems, like horses. The toxins are cumulative in the liver, and death results from too much Paterson's curse in the diet.

Description[edit]

Echium plantagineum is a winter annual plant growing to 20–60 cm tall, with rough, hairy, lanceolate leaves up to 14 cm long. The flowers are purple, 15–20 mm long, with all the stamens protruding, and borne on a branched spike.[3][4]

Invasive species[edit]

In Adelaide, South Australia

E. plantagineum has become an invasive species in Australia, where it is also known as Salvation Jane (particularly in South Australia), blueweed, Lady Campbell weed, and Riverina bluebell.

In the United States the species has become naturalised in parts of California, Oregon, and some eastern states and areas such as northern Michigan.[5] In Oregon it has been declared a noxious weed.[6]

Medical research[edit]

In a study funded by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (part of the National Institutes of Health in the United States), the seeds were found to lower triglycerides. Researchers at Wake Forest University and the Harvard Center for Botanical Lipids fed mice a diet supplemented with echium oil and found that it had effects similar to fish oil in lowering triglyceride levels in blood plasma and the liver.[7]

Cosmetics[edit]

Echium oil contains high levels of alpha linolenic acid (ALA), gamma linolenic acid (GLA), and stearidonic acid (SDA), making it valuable in cosmetic and skin care applications, with further potential as an alternative to dietary fish oils.[8]

Toxicity[edit]

Echium plantagineum contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids and is poisonous.[9] When eaten in large quantities, it causes reduced livestock weight and death, in severe cases. Paterson's curse can kill horses[10] and irritate the udders of dairy cows and the skin of humans. After the 2003 Canberra bushfires a large bloom of the plant occurred on the burned land, and many horses became ill and died from grazing on it.[11] Because the alkaloids can also be found in the nectar of Paterson's curse, the honey made from it should be blended with other honeys to dilute the toxins.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Echium plantagineum. Flora Europaea.
  2. ^ Echium plantagineum. Germplasm Resources Information Network.
  3. ^ Blamey, M. & C. Grey-Wilson. Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. 1989. ISBN 0-340-40170-2
  4. ^ Piggin, C. M. & A. W. Sheppard. (1995). Echium plantagineum L. In: Groves, R. H., R. C. H. Shepherd, and R. G. Richardson, (eds.) The Biology of Australian Weeds Vol 1. R. G. and F. J. Richardson, Melbourne. pp 87-110.
  5. ^ "Paterson's Curse Echium plantagineum in the Pacific Northwest". Oregon State University. 2010-09-24. 
  6. ^ "Paterson's Curse". Oregon Department of Agriculture. 2013-10-20. 
  7. ^ Echium Oil Reduces Triglyceride Levels in Mice. Research Spotlight. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). 2012.
  8. ^ National Non-Food Crops Centre. NNFCC Crop Factsheet: Echium
  9. ^ The MERCK Veterinary Manual, Table 5
  10. ^ Patersons Curse and Horse Health
  11. ^ Paterson's curse poisoning in horses. Animal Health Surveillance Quarterly Report 8(4) Oct-Dec 2003.
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Notes

Comments

Sparingly grown in gardens. Closely resembling Echium vulgare L., which may possibly occur (cultivated) here as well. The latter differs in the smaller flowers and upper cauline leaves which are not broad at the base.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!