Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Plains, Marsh Localities"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Brief

"Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1 Year Assessed: 2010 Assessor/s: Mani, S. Reviewer/s: Rao, M.L.V., Karuppasamy, S., Bhat, G.K., Sadasivaiah, B. & Dahanukar, N. Contributors: Molur, S. Justification: Sphenoclea zeylanica is a common and widespread species found pantropically. There are no known major threats to the species. It is therefore Least Concern. Conservation Actions: No conservation actions are known or needed for this species."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Herb
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Branched annual herb, up to 1.5 m tall. Stems hollow. Leaves lanceolate, narrowly ovate to elliptic, up to 12 × 5 cm, hairless; margin entire; petiole up to 1.5 cm long. Flowers in conical-cylindric spikes, up to 12 cm long. Corolla very small, white, greenish or pink yellow. Fruit a capsule, 4-5 mm in diameter, dehiscing below the calyx lobes, leaving the base attached to the rhachis.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Derivation of specific name

zeylanica: from Sri Lanka (Ceylon)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Range Description

Sphenoclea zeylanica is widely distributed pantropically. In India, it is found in Andaman, Assam, Delhi, Goa, Kerala, Manipur, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal (Cook 1996).



Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Range Description

Records from Senegal, Gambia, Nigeria, Burkina Faso (it was collected in two small stone ponds in Burkina Faso, in the centre and west of the country). But according to Airy Shaw et al. (1968) the species is found from Senegal to the Central African Republic.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

"Maharashtra: Raigad, Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg, Thane Karnataka: N. Kanara Tamil Nadu: All districts"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

"
Global Distribution

Pantropical

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

"Range Description: Sphenoclea zeylanica is widely distributed pantropically. In India, it is found in Andaman, Assam, Delhi, Goa, Kerala, Manipur, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal (Cook 1996). Countries - Native: Bangladesh; Cambodia; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; India (Andaman Is., Assam, Delhi, Goa, Kerala, Manipur, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal); Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Pakistan; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Sri Lanka; Thailand; Viet Nam; Zambia"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution in Egypt

Oases (Bahariya).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Distribution

Tropical Africa, Madagascar, tropical Asia and America.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Worldwide distribution

Widespread in tropical Africa, Asia and (probably introduced) America
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution: Trop. Africa, Asia and America.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Tropical Africa, C. Asia, Tropical Himalaya, India, Ceylon, Burma, east to China and Taiwan, Malaysia.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Erect or suberect, glabrous, semi-aquatic annual herb up to 150 cm tall with numerous thread-like roots, branched, somewhat succulent with more or less hollow stem. Leaves lanceolate-elliptic, usually acute, up to 12 cm long, 3.5 cm broad, entire, glabrous, subsessile to petiolate; petiole up to 2.5 cm long. Spikes acute, up to 5(-7.5) cm long and c. 1 cm in diameter on equally long or longer peduncles; bracts and bracteoles short, more or less spathulate, often upcurved. Flowers minute, densely crowded, white or greenish-yellow, only a few opening at a time Calyx 5-lobed; lobes ovate rounded, minute, glabrous. Corolla connate at the base, about 2.5(-4) mm long, usually white; segments ovate-triangular, obtuse or acute. Stamens 5; anthers subsessile, suborbicular. Ovary obovoid, 2.5 mm long, apex truncate. Capsule 4-5 mm in diam., calyx segments falling with the lid, leaving the basal portion attached and persistent on the rachis. Seeds numerous, c. 0.5 mm long, lightly rough with plicate-costate testa, yellowish-brown.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Elevation Range

200-600 m
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Erect herb; stem to 125 cm high, divaricately branched, thickened towards base to 3.5 cm in breadth, with long fibrous roots, fistulous, the cortex replaced by spongy, aerenchymatous tissue. Leaves oval to oblong-elliptic, 8.6-11.5 x 2.2-4.7 cm, cuneate or abruptly acute at base, subacute to obtuse at apex, entire, membranous, glaucous; petioles 1-3 cm long. Spikes ovoid, to 3 cm long, bluntly tapering to apex; peduncles to 6 cm long; flowers many. Bracts spathulate, to 3 x 2 mm, clawed, cuspidate-acute, inflexed over calyx. Bracteoles lateral to bracts, linear, 2-3 mm long. Calyx tube cupular, 1 mm long; lobes obovate-deltoid, 1 x 2 mm, concave, pale green. Corolla white; tube 1-1.5 mm long; lobes ovate-triangular. Filaments glabrous. Top of ovary truncate; stigma flattened, obscurely 2-lobed. Capsule depressed-globose, 3-3.5 mm in diameter, chartaceous; seeds oblong-cuneate, 0.5-0.8 x 0.2 mm, minutely ridged longitudinally, yellowish-brown."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic

Habit: Herb
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology

It is present in almost any kind of moist soil or on low riverbanks, along ditches, marshes, dry riverbeds, ponds; up to 300 m alt. Also found in lowland- irrigated and rained rice fields. Whereas, it is seasonally submerged, emergent or temporarily, terrestrial, often found in swampy areas, along the banks of water courses and in rice fields. It can tolerate brackish water. It is autogamous but perhaps also sometimes pollinated by insects. The disseminules are small seeds, dispersed in mud and perhaps also by other means. It is often gregarious becoming a troublesome weed in rice fields (Cook 1996).


Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Genus of two species. On mud beside pools.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

General Habitat

"Habitat and Ecology: It is present in almost any kind of moist soil or on low riverbanks, along ditches, marshes, dry riverbeds, ponds; up to 300 m alt. Also found in lowland- irrigated and rained rice fields. Whereas, it is seasonally submerged, emergent or temporarily, terrestrial, often found in swampy areas, along the banks of water courses and in rice fields. It can tolerate brackish water. It is autogamous but perhaps also sometimes pollinated by insects. The disseminules are small seeds, dispersed in mud and perhaps also by other means. It is often gregarious becoming a troublesome weed in rice fields (Cook 1996). Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater List of Habitats: 5, 5.1, 5.7, 5.8, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, 15, 15.8"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

General Habitat

Along water courses and mangrove forests
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: November-January
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per. July-Sept.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Sphenoclea zeylanica

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sphenoclea zeylanica

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2011

Assessor/s
Mani, S.

Reviewer/s
Rao, M.L.V., Karuppasamy, S., Bhat, G.K., Sadasivaiah, B. & Dahanukar, N.

Contributor/s
Molur, S.

Justification
Sphenoclea zeylanica is a common and widespread species found pantropically. There are no known major threats to the species. It is therefore Least Concern.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Diop, F.N.

Reviewer/s
Ouedraogo, L. & Smith, K.G.

Contributor/s

Justification
More information is needed on the species population status, distribution and impact of threats. Possibly more widespread that the records suggest. Listed as Data Deficient.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

"Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1 Year Assessed: 2010 Assessor/s: Mani, S. Reviewer/s: Rao, M.L.V., Karuppasamy, S., Bhat, G.K., Sadasivaiah, B. & Dahanukar, N. Contributors: Molur, S. Justification: Sphenoclea zeylanica is a common and widespread species found pantropically. There are no known major threats to the species. It is therefore Least Concern. Conservation Actions: No conservation actions are known or needed for this species."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population

This is a common species throughout its range.


Population Trend
Stable
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
Unknown.

Population Trend
Unknown
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Population: This is a common species throughout its range. Population Trend: Stable
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats

No threats have been reported for this species.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Major Threats
Potentially impacted by agricultural development, alien species and drought.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Major Threat (s): No threats have been reported for this species.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

No conservation actions are known or needed for this species.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Research actions needed to discern its real distribution and impact of threats.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!