Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

The ground pine uses a double-flowering strategy. It can flower at any time from June to October, depending on the time of seed germination. A proportion of its seeds from any spring will germinate in autumn, but some will also germinate the next spring if protected from winter frosts. Even when suitable growing areas are prepared, the plant does not readily occupy these because it has no known mechanism for spreading, other than dispersal by rabbits, stock or human disturbance, but just fortifies itself in small colonies, rarely more than a few hundred square metres in area. Although it is considered to be an annual plant, it occasionally behaves as a short-lived perennial. It is a non-competitive species, but the seeds can lay dormant for at least 50 years, possibly longer, and may germinate when the soil is disturbed. The species spreads very slowly, but can hang on in established sites and bloom again after some considerable time when the right conditions allow. The plant itself contains a cocktail of unpleasant chemicals that make it very unattractive to herbivores, and most learn not to eat it. It is optimised for warm, dry environments with very narrow, thick-skinned leaves that minimise water loss from evaporation.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

The ground pine is a small, greyish-green plant, which takes its name from its resemblance to a pine seedling. It also smells like its un-related namesake when the foliage is trampled or crushed. It bears yellow, red-dotted flowers in ones or twos up the stem and amongst the hairy, much divided three-lobed leaves. It was a plant well known to Tudor herbalists who probably exploited the resins contained within the leaves. They also considered the ground pine and the similar cut-leaved germander, sometimes found growing nearby, to be male and female examples of the same species.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution in Egypt

Sinai (St.Katherine).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Distribution

East Mediterranean region, Sinai, Arabia.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range

The ground pine ranges across central and southern Europe to the Mediterranean and into North Africa. In the UK it is confined to scattered sites in the South-east of England, in Hampshire, Kent and Surrey, and in the Chilterns.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Stony wadis.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

This species likes disturbed, bare ground, preferring south-facing, dry hillsides on chalk. It occurs on the edges of cultivated fields, tracksides, and crumbling banks. It can also be found growing on areas that have been broken up by construction works.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Perennial.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Ajuga chamaepitys

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ajuga chamaepitys

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Status

Classified as Vulnerable in the UK only.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

The Ground Pine is a plant that is very particular in its choice of habitat. Many of its former sites are becoming inhospitable as a result of changes in agricultural practices, the encroachment of scrub and other dominant species, which inhibit germination, and increasing use of herbicide spraying. Regular disturbance of the ground is critical, and in many cases this is not taking place, even where its seeds may be lying.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation

The concern over the status of the ground pine has led to its inclusion on the UK Biodiversity Action Plans. In partnership with Plantlife, the wild plant conservation charity, English Nature has funded work on this species through their Species Recovery Programme. Plantlife has mapped out all the known ground pine sites and liaised with landowners to encourage the sympathetic management of this plant. Several of the sites are Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs), and Plantlife carried out yearly surveys at the 15 sites known to hold populations. Scrub-clearance and deliberate soil disturbance by ploughing was also undertaken and this has had a positive effect on the populations of the ground pine. A number of sites owned by Kent County Council have been managed in the same way, and further objectives are to try and recruit volunteers to manage all sites supporting the plant and conduct further research into its biology. As a result of this work, the programme has moved into a Post Recovery phase, which declares that the species is maintaining itself - with the appropriate management and necessary ground disturbance - on a long-term basis as a viable component of its natural habitats. The natural range of the ground pine is no longer being reduced and is unlikely to be threatened in the foreseeable future. It is now important that the populations at the various sites are maintained and secured from damage. Five further sites have been earmarked for a re-introduction programme to be completed by the year 2007.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Ajuga chamaepitys

For other uses, see Ground pine.

Ajuga chamaepitys is a species of flowering plant of the family Lamiaceae. Popularly known as yellow bugle or ground-pine,[1] the plant has many of the same characteristics and properties as Ajuga reptans. A. chamaepitys can be found in Europe, the Eastern part of the Mediterranean, and North Africa.[2]

Characteristics[edit]

A. chamaepitys is a small herbaceous perennial that reaches 10–40 cm in height. The leaves have an opposite arrangement. It's flowering season is generally in late spring. Ground pine is a plant whose richness has been severely reduced by changes to downland farming.[clarification needed] At first sight, A. chamaepitys looks like a tiny pine tree with a reddish purple four-cornered hairy stem. The leaves can get up to 4 cm long, and are divided into three linear lobes which, when crushed, have a smell similar to pine needles. Ground pine sheds its shiny black seeds close to the parent plant and the seeds can remain alive in the soil for up to 50 years.[2]

Herbal use[edit]

A. chamaepitys has stimulant, diuretic and emmenagogue action and is considered by herbalists to form a good remedy for gout and rheumatism and also to be useful in female disorders. Ground pine is a plant well known to Tudor herbalists who exploited the resins contained within the leaves. The herb was formerly regarded almost as a specific in gouty and rheumatic affections. The plant leaves were dried and reduced to powder.[3] It formed an ingredient of the once famous gout remedy, Portland Powder. It was composed of the leaves of A. Chamaepitys, which has a slightly turpentine-like smell and a rough taste, with properties described as being similar to diluted alcohol.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "BSBI List 2007" (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Retrieved 2014-10-17. 
  2. ^ a b c Grieve, M. A Modern Herbal: The Medicinal, Culinary, Cosmetic and Economic Properties, Cultivation and Folk-lore of Herbs, Grasses, Fungi, Shrubs & Trees with their Modern Scientific Uses. Dover Publications Inc., 1971
  3. ^ flowersinisrael.com
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Considered exotic in North America (23 Mar 94)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!