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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Aromatic shrub. Stems usually with numerous recurved prickles but these sometimes very sparse or even 0. Leaves opposite. Flowers in heads, 2-3 cm in diameter. Bracts of the inflorescence linear to linear-lanceolate, up to 2 mm wide. Corolla colours very varied. Fruit a fleshy purple or black drupe.
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Miscellaneous Details

Birds disperse the seeds. Flowers attract butterflies and moths. Food plant of Death's head Hawk moth. Used in traditional medicine.
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Distribution

Worldwide distribution

Probably native of the W Indies, but well naturalised throughout the tropics and subtropics.
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"Most aggresive weed of disturbed ground from plains to the hills. Native of tropical America, widely naturalised in tropics and subtropics."
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Distribution in Egypt

Nile region (Aswan).

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Global Distribution

Probably native to west Indies, widely naturalized in many tropical and subtropical regions.

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Naturalized in Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan [tropical and subtro-pical America, often naturalized in other tropical and subtropical regions]
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Distribution: A native of trop. America, widely introduced and naturalized in many tropical and subtropical regions.
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Himalaya (Nepal), India, Burma, China, Indo-China, Malaya. Native of America, widely naturalised in Nepal, India and other parts of Asia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

"
Flower

In axillary dense spikes; brick red (plains) to pink (hills). Flowering throughout the year.

Fruit

A globose drupe, ripening dark black or blue; seed 1, reticulate. Fruiting throughout the year.

Field tips

Stem 4-angular, prickly.

Leaf Arrangement

Opposite-decussate

Leaf Type

Simple

Leaf Shape

Ovate-oblong

Leaf Apex

Acute

Leaf Base

Cuneate, rounded, cordate

Leaf Margin

Crenulate-crenate

"
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Description

Evergreen shrub with rambling or straggling branches, 1-2(-4) m, tall; branches usually minutely or inconspicuously pubescent, unarmed to conspicuously prickly with hooked spines. Leaves opposite, decussate, ovate to ovate-oblong, (2-) 5-10 (-12) cm long, (1.5-) 2-5 cm broad, crenate-serrate, acute to shortly acuminate, ± rugose, scabrid; petiole 5-10 (-12) mm long. Flowering heads axillary, peduncled, umbellate in flower, shorter to exceeding the subtending leaves, 2-3 cm across. Bracts lanceolate to linear, 5-7 mm broad, acute to subulate, rarely a few larger ones also present. Flowers 5-8 mm across, mostly orange or yellow, turning to red or scarlet later. Calyx 2-3 mm long, thin, pubescent. Corolla-tube 7-10 (-12) mm long, pubescent, slightly enlarged and curved above the middle; limb 4 lobed with spreading, ± rounded lobes. Drupe 3-5 mm in diameter, globose; fleshy, black, shining, 2-seeded.
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Elevation Range

400-1300 m
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Description

Shrubs with long weak branches, armed with stout recurved prickles, pubescent. Petiole 1-2 cm, pubescent; leaf blade ovate to oblong, 3-8.5 X 1.5-5 cm, papery, wrinkled, very rough, with short stiff hairs, aromatic when crushed, base rounded to subcordate, margin crenate; lateral veins 5 pairs, very prominent, elevated. Capitula terminal, 1.5-2.5 cm across. Flowers yellow or orange, often turning deep red soon after opening. Ovary glabrous. Drupes deep purple, globose, ca. 4 mm in diam. 2n = 44.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Habit: A large bushy shrub, upto 5m or more."
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Type Information

Holotype for Lantana glandulosissima var. grandis Moldenke
Catalog Number: US 1180703
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): W. R. Maxon & A. Valentine
Year Collected: 1923
Locality: Btwn Chagres batteries & Fort San Lorenzo, Fort Sherman MiLitary Reservation., Panama, Central America - Neotropics
  • Holotype: Moldenke, H. N. 1982. Phytologia. 52: 230.
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Holotype for Lantana horrida f. inermis Moldenke
Catalog Number: US 571793
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): G. F. Gaumer
Locality: Yucatán, Mexico, North America
  • Holotype: Moldenke, H. N. 1982. Phytologia. 52: 130.
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Isotype for Lantana scandens Moldenke
Catalog Number: US 1824989
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): G. B. Hinton
Year Collected: 1938
Locality: Pto. del Aire, Villa Victoria., Coalcoman, Michoacán, Mexico, North America
  • Isotype: Moldenke, H. N. 1941. Phytologia. 2: 18.
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Holotype for Lantana horrida f. inermis Moldenke
Catalog Number: US 571793
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): G. Gaumer
Locality: Yucatán, Mexico, North America
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Isotype for Lantana glandulosissima Hayek
Catalog Number: US 82166
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. G. Pringle
Year Collected: 1893
Locality: Hills about Tequila., Jalisco, Mexico, North America
  • Isotype: Hayek, A. A. von. 1906. Repert. Spec. nov. Regni Veg. 2: 161.
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Isotype for Lantana foetida Rusby
Catalog Number: US 49955
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): M. Bang
Locality: Mapiri, Bolivia, South America
  • Isotype: Rusby, H. H. 1907. Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 4: 431.
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Isotype for Lantana foetida Rusby
Catalog Number: US 1322813
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): H. H. Rusby
Locality: Bolivia, South America
  • Isotype: Rusby, H. H. 1907. Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 4: 431.
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Holotype for Lantana glandulosissima var. grandis Moldenke
Catalog Number: US 1180703
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): W. R. Maxon & A. Valentine
Year Collected: 1923
Locality: Btwn Chagres batteries & Fort San Lorenzo, Fort Sherman MiLitary Reservation., Panama, Central America
  • Holotype: Moldenke, H. N. 1982. Phytologia. 52: 230.
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"Most aggressive weed of disturbed ground. Plains from the coast to the hills. Native of tropical America, widely naturalized in tropics and subtropics."
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Open waste places and near coast; 100-1500 m.
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Associations

Insects whose larvae eat this plant species

Acherontia atropos (Death's head hawk)
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Population Biology

Frequency

Abundant
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: Throughout the year.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Chemistry

Unripe fruit contains belladone alkaloids causing intoxication in children, and lantadenes A and B (triterpenic acids) causing gastrointestinal or liver problems and photosensitivity. Lantana poisoning in an animal may damage its liver, gall bladder, and kidneys. Seed-oil is anthelmintic. Leaf contains lantanine.

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Barcode data: Lantana camara

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Lantana camara

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 11
Specimens with Barcodes: 56
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Whole plant: Plant is boiled, and the water drunk as an anti-tuberculosis, by the Guyana Patamona. Plant is boiled with water and used for an herbal bath and for washing the skin as treatment for chicken pox or for measles, by the Guyana Patamona. Plant is boiled and the water used as an anti-pruritic, by the Guyana Patamona. Root: Root is boiled with water and drunk as an anti-asthmatic, by the Guyana Patamona.

Leaf: Leaf is used for a calmative, stimulant, insecticide, febrifuge, pectoral and grippe remedy; mixed with leaves of Hedychium coronarium as a febrifuge; a decoction, bath or infusion as a febrifuge specifically for children. Mixed with leaves of Cymbopogon citratus in a tea to treat colds, hypertension and malarial fever. Vulnerary; sudorific tea from leaves is slightly bitter, cephalic and carminative; fortifying bath is prepared from cooled and boiled leaves. Decoction of leaves is injected for inflammations of the uterus. In a preparation inhaled for asthma. Leaves ingested for colic. In remedies for scabies, skin rashes, swellings, contusions, stomach pain, rheumatism, antiseptic on cuts, and in Surinam Saramaccan herbal baths. Leaves are boiled, and the water drunk as an anti-asthmatic, anti-malarial, anti-pyretic and as a treatment for whooping cough or for back pain, by the Guyana Patamona. Leaves are boiled, and the water used for washing the skin as a treatment for cold sweat or the water drunk for treating colds or coughs, by the Guyana Patamona. Macerated leaves are boiled with water and used for treating “bush yaws” and sores, by the Guyana Patamona. Leaf and Flower: In Guyana, a bitter tea made from the leaves and buds is used for treating influenza, and to cleanse the blood. Infusion with honey and tafia for coughs and pains. Used for coughs and colds, hemorrhage, and treating sores in NW Guyana. Part unspecified: Used as an anti-malarial by Amerindians at Kurupukari, Guyana.

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Folklore

Indigenous Information: The young stem is used as toothsticks. Fruits edible. Young leaves are used to cure fever. Sloth bear and monkeys observed eating the fruits.
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Uses

Flower attracts butterflies and moths. Birds disperse the seeds.
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Wikipedia

Lantana camara

Lantana camara, also known as big sage (Malaysia), wild sage, red sage, white sage (Caribbean) and tickberry (South Africa),[4] is a species of flowering plant within the verbena family, Verbenaceae, that is native to the American tropics.[5][6]

L. camara has spread from its native Central and South America to around 50 different countries,[7] where it has become an invasive species.[8][9] It spread from the Americas into the rest of the world when it was brought back to Europe by Dutch explorers and cultivated widely, soon spreading into Asia and Oceania, where it established itself as a notorious weed.[8]

L. camara will often out-compete other more desirable species, leading to a reduction in biodiversity.[10] It can also cause problems if it invades agricultural areas as a result of its toxicity to livestock as well as its ability to form dense thickets which if left unchecked can greatly reduce the productivity of farm land.[11]

The name Lantana derives from the Latin name of the wayfaring tree Viburnum lantana, the flowers of which closely resemble Lantana.[8]

Description[edit]

Mature fruits of Lantana camara
Mature fruits of Lantana camara

Lantana camara is a small perennial shrub which can grow to around 2m in height and forms dense thickets in a variety of environments.[12] Due to extensive selective breeding throughout the 17th and 18th Century for use as an ornamental plant there are now many different forms of L. camara present throughout the world.[3]

L. camara has small tubular shaped flowers which each have four petals and are arranged in clusters at the end of stems. Flowers come in many different colours including red, yellow, white, pink and orange which differ depending on location, age and maturity.[13] After pollination occurs the colour of the flowers change (typically from yellow to red/pink/orange), this is believed to be a signal to pollinators that the pre-change colour contains a reward as well as being sexually viable, thus increasing pollination efficiency.[14]

The leaves are egg-shaped, simple, arranged oppositely on the stem and have a strong odour when crushed.[15]

The fruit of L. camara is berry-like and turns a deep purple colour when mature. Both vegetative (asexual) and seed reproduction occur. Up to 12,000 fruits can be produced by each plant[16] which are then eaten by birds and other animals which can spread the seeds over large distances, facilitating the spread of L. camara.

Distribution[edit]

Hummingbird feeding from Lantana camara flower in Dominica.
Antillean crested hummingbird feeding from Lantana camara

The native range of L. camara is Central and South America, however it has become naturalised in around 60 tropical and sub-tropical countries worldwide.[17][18] It is found frequently in East and South Africa where it occurs at altitudes below 2000m and often invades previously disturbed areas such as logged forests and areas cleared for agriculture.[19]

As well as Africa, it has also colonised areas of Southern Europe such as Spain and Portugal, the Middle East, India, Tropical Asia, Australia, New Zealand, USA as well as many Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean Islands.[20][21] It has also become a significant weed in Sri Lanka after escaping from the Royal Botanic gardens of Sri Lanka in 1926.[22]

It was introduced into the Philippines from Hawaii as part of an exchange program between the United States and the Philippines, however it managed to escape and has become naturalised in the islands.[23]

The extent of L. camara distribution is still increasing, shown by the fact that it has invaded many islands on which it was not present in 1974 (including Galapagos Islands, Saipan and the Solomon Islands).[21] There is also evidence that L. camara is still increasing its range in areas where it has been established for many years such as East Africa, Australia and New Zealand.[7] The ability of L. camara to rapidly colonise areas of land which have been disturbed has allowed it to proliferate in countries where activities such as logging, clearance for agriculture and forest fires are common. Whereas in countries with large areas of intact primary forest, the distribution of L. camara has been limited.[7][24]

Ecology[edit]

Forest edge habitat in Kibale National Park, Uganda
Forest edge habitat in Kibale National Park where L. camara is frequently found

Habitat[edit]

L. camara is found in a variety of environments, including;

L. camara is rarely found in natural or semi-natural areas of forest as it is unable to compete with taller trees due to its lack of tolerance for shade,[4] and instead grows at the forest edge. L. camara can survive in a wide range of climatic conditions, including drought, different soil types, heat, humidity and salt. It is also relatively fire tolerant and can quickly establish itself in recently burnt areas of forest.[19][25]

Invasive Species[edit]

L. camara is considered a weed in large areas of the Paleotropics where it has established itself. In agricultural areas or secondary forests it can become the dominant understorey shrub, crowding out other native species and reducing biodiversity.[4] The formation of dense thickets of L. camara can significantly slow down the regeneration of forests by preventing the growth of new trees.[3]

Although L. camara is itself quite resistant to fire, it can change fire patterns in a forest ecosystem by altering the fuel load to cause a buildup of forest fuel which increases the risk of fires spreading to the canopy.[26] This can be particularly destructive in dry, arid areas where fire can spread quickly and lead to the loss of large areas of natural ecosystem.

L. camara reduces the productivity in pasture through the formation of dense thickets which reduce growth of crops as well as make harvesting more difficult. There are also secondary impacts, including the finding that mosquitos which transmit malaria and tsetse flies in Africa shelter within the bushes of L. camara.[27]

There are many reasons why L. camara has been so successful as an invasive species, however the primary factors which have allowed it to establish itself are;

  1. Wide dispersal range made possible by birds and other animals which eat the berries
  2. Less prone to being eaten by animals due to toxicity
  3. Tolerance of a wide range of environmental conditions[4]
  4. Increase in logging and habitat modification which has been beneficial to L. camara as it prefers disturbed habitats
  5. Production of toxic chemicals which inhibit competing plant species
  6. Extremely high seed production (12,000 seeds from each plant per year)[28]

Toxicity[edit]

L. camara is known to be toxic to livestock such as cattle, sheep, horses, dogs and goats.[29][30] The active substances causing toxicity in grazing animals is pentacyclic triterpenoids which results in liver damage and photosensitivy.[31] L. camara also excretes chemicals (allelopathy) which reduce the growth of surrounding plants by inhibiting germination and root elongation.[32]

The toxicity of L. camara to humans is undetermined, with several studies suggesting that ingesting berries can be toxic to humans, such as a study by O P Sharma which states "Green unripe fruits of the plant are toxic to humans".[33] However other studies have found evidence which suggests that ingesion of L. camara fruit poses no risk to humans and are in fact edible when ripe.[34][35]

Management and Control[edit]

Butterfly feeding on Lantana camara
Butterfly feeding on Lantana camara

Effective management of invasive L. camara in the long term will require a reduction in activities which create degraded habitats. Maintaining functioning (healthy) ecosystems is key to preventing invasive species from establishing themselves and outcompeting native fauna and flora.

Biological[edit]

Insects and other biocontrol agents have been implemented with varying degrees of success in an attempt to control L. camara. It was the first weed ever subjected to biological control, however none of the programmes have been successful despite 36 control agents being used across 33 regions.[36]

The lack of success using biological control in this case is most likely due to the many hybrid forms of L. camara as well as the large genetic diversity which make it difficult for the control agents to effectively target all plants.

Mechanical[edit]

Mechanical control of L. camara involves physically removing the plants. Physical removal can be effective but is labour-intensive and expensive,[4] therefore removal is usually only appropriate in small areas. Another method of mechanical control is to use fire treatment followed by revegetation with native species.

Chemical[edit]

Using herbicides to manage L. camara is very effective but also expensive (prohibiting its use in many poorer countries where L. camara is well established). The most effective way of chemically treating plant species is to first mow the area then spray the area with a herbicide (weed-killer).

Uses[edit]

Butterfly resting on Lantana camara
Butterfly resting on Lantana camara

L. camara stalks have been used in the construction of furniture such as chairs and tables,[37] however, the main uses have historically been medicinal and ornamental.

Medicinal[edit]

Studies conducted in India have found that Lantana leaves can display antimicrobial, fungicidal and insecticidal properties.[3][38] L. camara has also been used in traditional herbal medicines for treating a variety of ailments, including cancer, skin itches, leprosey, rabies, chicken pox, measles, asthma and ulcers.[3]

There are also some scientific studies which have shown beneficial effects of L .camara, such as one by R. Satish which found that an extract from the plant reduced ulcer development in rats.[39] Extracts from the plant have also been used to treat respiratory infections in Brazil.[40]

Ornamental[edit]

L. camara has been grown specifically for use as an ornamental plant since Dutch explorers first brought it to Europe from the New World.[3] Its ability to last for a relatively long time without water and that it does not have many pests or diseases which affect it have contributed to it becoming a common ornamental plant. L. camara also attracts butterflies and birds and so is frequently used in Florida's butterfly gardens.[5]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Munir A (1996). "A taxonomic review of Lantana camara L. and L. montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq. (Verbenaceae) in Australia". Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens 17: 1–27. 
  2. ^ [ Lantana camara.]|url=http://www.ars-grin.gov/~sbmljw/cgi-bin/taxon.pl?310628 Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Global Invasive Species Database". issg.org.uk. Retrieved 2014-03-22. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Quentin C. B. Cronk, Janice L. Fuller (1995). Plant Invaders: The Threat to Natural Ecosystems. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Springer. ISBN 0-412-48380-7. 
  5. ^ a b Floridata LC (2007). "Lantana camara". Floridata LC. Retrieved March 24, 2014. 
  6. ^ Moyhill Publishing (2007). "English vs. Latin Names". Moyhill Publishing. Retrieved March 24, 2014. 
  7. ^ a b c Day, M. D. (December 24, 2003). Lantana: current management status and future prospects. Australian Centre for International Agricltural Research. ISBN 1863203753. Retrieved March 24, 2014. 
  8. ^ a b c Ghisalberti, E.L. (2000). "Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae)". Fitoterapia 71 (5): 467–486. doi:10.1016/S0367-326X(00)00202-1. Retrieved 24 March 2014. 
  9. ^ Sharma, OM.P.; Harinder, Paul S (1988). "A review of the noxious plant Lantana camara". Toxicon 26 (11): 975–987. doi:10.1016/0041-0101(88)90196-1. Retrieved 24 March 2014. 
  10. ^ Kohli, Ravinder. K. (2006). "Status, invasiveness and environmental threats of three tropical American invasive weeds (Parthenium hysterophorus L., Ageratum conyzoides L., Lantana camara L.) in India" 8 (7). Biological Invasions. Retrieved March 25, 2014. 
  11. ^ Ensbey, Rob. "Lantana - Weed of National Significance". 
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  14. ^ Weiss, Martha. R. (1990). "FLORAL COLOR CHANGES AS CUES FOR POLLINATORS". 
  15. ^ Rosacia, W. Z., et al. (2004). "Lantana and Hagonoy: Poisonous weeds prominent in rangeland and grassland areas". Research Information Series on Ecosystems (Department of the Environment and Natural Resources, Republic of the Philippines) 16 (2). Retrieved July 27, 2011. 
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Common Names

FG Creole: agou-man-maka, marie-crabe, monjoly, the indien, verveine, zerb des putains. FG Palikur: rubban. Guyana Creole: semeheyu-balli, sweet sage, samanballi, wild sage. Surinam: soldatenthee. Surinam Creole: korsoe-wiwiri, korsoe wiri, korsoewiwiri, korsu wiwiri, malva, makamaka. Guyana Patamona: Khya-wuk-yik, kwah-wuk-ki-ma-yik, kya-wou-goui-ma-yik.

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Decoction is given in tetanus rheumatism and malaria. Essential oil contains camerene, isocamerane and micranene.

A favourite ornamental of our gardens with highly variable flower colours, stature, indumentum and pricklness. A number of varieties, of indefinite consatancy in flower colour have been recognized by some authors; some of these, seen from the area, are as follows:

 1. var. camara : flowers orange-yellow, turning red or scarlet.

1. var. flava (Medic.) Moldenke: flowers yellow.

2. var. rubella Moldenke: flowers pink.

3. var. sanguinea (Medic.) L.H. Bailey: Flowers opening saffron yellow but changing to bright red later.

4. var. aculeate (Linn.) Moldenke: Plants with conspicuous prickles.

5. var. alba Moldenke: Flowers white.

A hybrid, x Lantana callowiana Monrov., very similar to this species, has also been recorded from Karachi University campus nursery, by Saida Qureshi s.n. (KUH).

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Medicinal, ornamental. 

 A very wide range of flower colors has been developed within cultivars.

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