IUCN threat status:

Not evaluated

Comprehensive Description

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This native perennial wildflower is 1½–3' tall and more or less erect with an unbranched stem. The stem is light green, 4-angled, and slightly pubescent (covered with short sparse hairs). Along this stem, there are pairs of opposite leaves. Individual leaves are up to 3½" long and 1¾" across; they are medium green, lanceolate-ovate to ovate, and serrated along their margins. Each leaf tapers gradually or abruptly to a short petiole, although some of the upper leaves are nearly sessile. The upper surface of each leaf is hairless, while the lower surface is often slightly pubescent along the central vein. Dense clusters of numerous flowers occur in the axils of the leaves. Each flower is only 1/8" across, consisting of a light green calyx that is short-tubular with 4-5 teeth, a white corolla that is short-tubular with 4-5 tiny lobes, 2 stamens, and a pistil. The rather broad teeth of the calyx are triangular-ovate. The stamens are more or less included with the corolla. Minute bracts are embedded with the flowers. The blooming period occurs from mid-summer into the fall and lasts about 2-3 months. There is no true terminal inflorescence. Each flower is replaced by 4 small nutlets that are obovoid and flat-topped in shape. The root system is fibrous and stoloniferous, often forming vegetative colonies of plants. Cultivation


Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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