Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

Flowers attract butterflies and moths. Food plant of the Death's Head Hawk moth. Leaves repel pests in stored grain. Used in traditional medicine.
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Shrub to Small Tree Distribution notes: Exotic
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"
Global Distribution

Indo-Malesia and China, cultivated throughout the tropics

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
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Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Japan; E Africa, S and SE Asia, Pacific Islands]
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Distribution: Pakistan, India, W. Asia and N. Africa; introduced and widely cultivated as an ornamental elsewhere.
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Physical Description

Morphology

"
Field Tips

Stem 4-angular.

Flower

In terminal panicles, purple to violet. Flowering peaks from January-April (plains) and July-October (hills).

Fruit

A drupe, globose. Fruiting throughout the year.

Leaf Apices

Acuminate

Leaf arrangement

Opposite decussate

Leaf Bases

Acute

Leaf Margins

Entire

Leaf Shapes

Oblanceolate

Habit

A large shrub.

"
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Description

Shrubs, usually 1-2 m tall, rarely reaching the size of a small tree, up to 5 m tall, whitish to greyish tomentose except the upper surface of leaves and fruits. Leaves opposite-decussate, (1-) 3-5-foliolate, petiolate; petiole 3-6 cm long; leaflets usually lanceolate, 5-10 (-15) cm long, 1.5-4 cm broad, middle one largest, entire to irregularly denticulate, subsessile to petiolulate (petiolule 5-20 mm long). Terminal inflorescence 10-25 cm long, tapering-thyrsoid; cymes verticillate at nodes, peduncled. Flowers small, 3-5 mm across, usually blue or violet, subsessile to shortly pedicelled (pedicels up to 1 mm long). Calyx c. 2 mm long, increasing up to 3 mm in fruit, persistent, campanulate, 5-toothed. Corolla tube as long as the calyx; limb slightly 2-lipped, with 5, unequal lobes, densely ciliate, up to 2 mm long, largest one obovate-orbicular, undulate or crenulate, the others oblong, smaller. Stamens 4, didynamous, protruding, anther cells divaricating later. Drupe subglobose or somewhat ovoid, c. 5 mm in diameter, usually 4-celled, with 1 seed in each cell.
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Description

Shrubs or small trees. Branchlets densely gray tomen-tose. Leaves 3-7-foliolate; central leaflet distinctly petiolulate. Calyx campanulate, 5-dentate, gray tomentose. Corolla 2-lipped, 5-lobed, outside puberulent. Stamens exserted. Ovary subglabrous.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Shrubs or small trees; purple pubescent all over, aromatic, bark pale. Leaves 3-5-foliolate; leaflets 6-13 x 2-5 cm, narrowly oblong or elliptic to lanceolate, base acute, apex acuminate. Panicles terminal, 10-25 cm long. Calyx 5-toothed obconic, c. 3 mm long, teeth triangular. Corolla deep purple to violet in colour, c. 7 mm across, hypocrateriform; tube 3-5 mm long, puberulent without, upper lipd 2-lobed, lower 3-lobed with the middle lobe larger, obovate, undulate-margined, other lobes shorter, subequal, obtuse. Stamens 4, filaments purple. Ovary c. 1 mm long; style purple; stigma 2-fid. Drupe 3-5 mm across, globose, purple or black."
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"Common, by riverbanks, along roadsides as hedges. Plains from the coast to 1000m, India, Himalaya, Burma, Afghanistan, China, Indo-China, Sri Lanka, Malaysia."
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General Habitat

"Grown as hedge plant, also growing wild"
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100-3200 m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: February-July
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Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: Round the year.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Vitex negundo

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Vitex negundo

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Medicinal
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Uses

The whole plant is used during the puberty rituals.
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Wikipedia

Vitex negundo

In vitro flowering in Vitex negundo
Inflorescence of Vitex negundo in Panchkhal valley in Nepal

Vitex negundo, commonly known as the five-leaved chaste tree, is a large aromatic shrub with quadrangular, densely whitish, tomentose branchlets. It is widely used in folk medicine, particularly in South and Southeast Asia.

It is known under a variety of names in different languages: Tamil: நொச்சி, nochhi; Hindi: निर्गुंडी, nirgundi; Sanskrit: सिन्धुवार, sindhuvara(వావిలి / సింధువార); Telugu : Sindhuvara; Filipino: lagundî; Sinhala: නික, nika; and Bengali: Nishinda (নিশিন্দা), Nepali: Simali (सिमाली)and nirgudi in marathi.

''''introduction''''== Vitex negundo is an erect shrub or small tree growing from 2 to 8 m (6.6 to 26.2 ft) in height. The bark is reddish-brown. Its leaves are digitate, with five lanceolate leaflets, sometimes three. Each leaflet is around 4 to 10 cm (1.6 to 3.9 in) in length, with the central leaflet being the largest and possessing a stalk. The leaf edges are toothed or serrated and the bottom surface is covered in hair.[2] The numerous flowers are borne in panicles 10 to 20 cm (3.9 to 7.9 in) in length. Each is around 6 to 7 cm (2.4 to 2.8 in) long and are white to blue in color. The petals are of different lengths, with the middle lower lobe being the longest. Both the corolla and calyx are covered in dense hairs.[2]

The fruit is a succulent drupe, 4 mm (0.16 in) in diameter, rounded to egg-shaped. It is black or purple when ripe.[2]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Vitex negundo is native to tropical Eastern and Southern Africa and Asia. It is widely cultivated and naturalized elsewhere.[1]

Countries it is indigenous to include Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Kenya, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, and Vietnam.[1]

Vitex negundo are commonly found near bodies of water, recently disturbed land, grasslands, and mixed open forests.[3]

Nomenclature[edit]

Common names of Vitex negunda in different languages include:[4]

  • Assamese : Pochotia
  • Bengali : Nirgundi; Nishinda; Samalu
  • Bontok : Liñgei
  • Chinese : Huang jing (黄荆)
  • English : Five-leaved chaste tree; Horseshoe vitex; Chinese chaste tree
  • Filipino : Lagundî[3]
  • Gujarati : Nagoda; Shamalic
  • Hindi : Mewri; Nirgundi; Nisinda; Sambhalu; Sawbhalu (निर्गुंडी)
  • Ifugao : Dabtan
  • Ilokano : Dangla[3]
  • Kannada : Bile-nekki
  • Malayalam : Indrani
  • Marathi : Nirgunda
  • Punjabi : Banna; Marwan; Maura; Mawa; Swanjan Torbanna
  • Sanskrit : Nirgundi; Sephalika; Sindhuvara; Svetasurasa; Vrikshaha (सिन्धुवार)
  • Sinhala: Nika
  • Tamil : Chinduvaram; Nirnochchi; Nochchi; Notchi; Vellai-nochchi
  • Telugu : Sindhuvara; Vavili; Nalla-vavili; Tella-vavili (వావిలి / సింధువార)lekkali

Chemistry[edit]

The principal constituents the leaf juice are casticin, isoorientin, chrysophenol D, luteolin, p–hydroxybenzoic acid and D-fructose.[citation needed] The main constituents of the oil are sabinene, linalool, terpinen-4-ol, β-caryophyllene, α-guaiene and globulol constituting 61.8% of the oil.[citation needed] In vitro and animal studies have shown that chemicals isolated from the plant have potential anti-inflammatory,[5] antibacterial,[6] antifungal[7][8] and analgesic[5][9][10] activities.

Uses[edit]

Vitex negundo is used for treating stored garlic against pests and as a cough remedy in the Philippines.[11] Roots and leaves used in eczema, ringworm and other skin diseases, liver disorders, spleen enlargement, rheumatic pain, gout, abscess, backache; seeds used as vermicide.It is also used to control population of mosquitoes.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Vitex negundo L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) online database. Retrieved September 7, 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c Vitex negundo Linn. Fact Sheet. Bureau of Plant Industry, Department of Agriculture, Republic of the Philippines. 
  3. ^ a b c "Vitex negundo L. - Lagundi". Prosea Herbal Techno-Catalog. Retrieved September 7, 2011. 
  4. ^ Vitex negunda in Dr. K. M. Madkarni's Indian Materia Medica; Edited by A. K. Nadkarni, Popular Prakashan, Bombay, 1976, pp: 1278-80.
  5. ^ a b Dharmasiri MG, Jayakody JR, Galhena G, Liyanage SS, Ratnasooriya WD (August 2003). "Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of mature fresh leaves of Vitex negundo". J Ethnopharmacol 87 (2-3): 199–206. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00159-4. PMID 12860308. 
  6. ^ Perumal Samy R, Ignacimuthu S, Sen A (September 1998). "Screening of 34 Indian medicinal plants for antibacterial properties". J Ethnopharmacol 62 (2): 173–82. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00057-9. PMID 9741889. 
  7. ^ Sathiamoorthy B, Gupta P, Kumar M, Chaturvedi AK, Shukla PK, Maurya R (January 2007). "New antifungal flavonoid glycoside from Vitex negundo". Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 17 (1): 239–42. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2006.09.051. PMID 17027268. 
  8. ^ Damayanti M, Susheela K, Sharma GJ (1996). "Effect of plant extracts and systemic fungicide on the pineapple fruit-rotting fungus, Ceratocystis paradoxa". Cytobios 86 (346): 155–65. PMID 9022263. 
  9. ^ Gupta RK, Tandon VR (April 2005). "Antinociceptive activity of Vitex-negundo Linn leaf extract". Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 49 (2): 163–70. PMID 16170984. 
  10. ^ Gupta M, Mazumder UK, Bhawal SR (February 1999). "CNS activity of Vitex negundo Linn. in mice". Indian J. Exp. Biol. 37 (2): 143–6. PMID 10641133. 
  11. ^ "Lagundi leaves as effective control against storage pests of garlic". Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD), Department of Science and Technology, Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved September 7, 2011. 
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Notes

Comments

It is often planted along water channel to check erosion, and readily grows from cuttings.

Its leaves are sometimes used for curing inflammatory swellings of joints, headache etc.

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Comments

Fiber, medicinal.
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