Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Dry Deciduous Forests
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Shrub
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: The areal of this species is the subtropical part of Brazil and Parquay.

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"
Global Distribution

Pantropical

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Malappuram, Kozhikkode, Kasaragode, Kannur, Palakkad

"
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"Maharashtra: Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg"
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Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hebei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Shandong, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [S and SE Asia, Australia, Pacific Islands]
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Distribution: Native of tropical and subtropical Asia and N. Australia; widely introduced and naturalized or cultivated.
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Himalaya (Nepal), India, Ceylon, China, Japan, Malaysia, Australia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Very similar to the previous species but leaves (1-) 3-foliolate, inflorescence lax, 2.5-4 cm broad, cymes pedicelled, flowers and fruits slightly larger. Calyx 4-5 mm long. Corolla 10-13 mm long.
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Elevation Range

1500-3000 m
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Description

Shrubs or small trees, 1.5-5 m tall, erect. Branchlets densely pubescent. Leaves 1-3(-5)-foliolate; petiole 1-3 cm; leaflets sessile, oblong, lanceolate, or obovate, abaxially densely gray tomentose, adaxially green and glabrous or subglabrous, base cuneate, margin entire, apex obtuse, veins ca. 8 pairs and slightly prominent on both surfaces; central or single leaflet 2.5-9 X 1.7-3 cm. Panicles 3-15 cm; peduncle densely gray tomentose. Calyx slightly 5-dentate, outside gray pubescent, inside glabrous. Corolla purplish to bluish purple, 6-10 mm, outside scaly white, pubescent at filament bases and on inside of lower lobe. Stamens exserted. Ovary glabrous, with or without glands. Style glabrous. Fruit black, subglobose, ca. 5 mm in diam. Fl. Apr-Aug, fr. Aug-Nov.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Shrub, 3-6 m high; branches and branchlets obtusely 4-angular or subterete, pubescent; nodes annulate; internodes 2.5-5 cm long. Leaves 1-3 foliolate; petioles slender, canaliculate, 0.5-3.5 cm long, grey-appressed-pubescent; leaflets ovate-oblong or obovate, obtuse or acute to cuneate at base, entire along margins, acuminate at apex; middle leaflets 2.5-6.5 x 1-3.5 cm; petiolules ca 0.5 cm long or subsessile; lateral leaflets 2.5-4.5 x 1-1.5 cm, sessile; chartaceous, dark green pubescent with resinous glands above, white-or grey-tomentose beneath; lateral nerves 7-12 pairs, obscure on both surfaces. Panicles terminal and supraaxillary, 5-26 cm long; peduncles obtusely 4-angular, greyish-pubescent; bracts leaf-like, simple or 3-foliolate, smaller than leaves; bractlets linear, 1-4 mm long, pubescent. Flowers fragrant; pedicels 0.5-1 cm long. Calyx campanulate, 5-toothed, ca 4x 3 mm; teeth triangular, ca 0.2 mm long, greyish-pubescent outside. Corolla hypocrateriform, 2-lipped, 5-lobed, violet, purple or blue; upper lip 2-lobed; lobes ovate, 2 mm; lower lip 3-lobed; midlobe obovate or suborbicular, entire, acute, ca 6 x 5 mm; lateral lobes ovate, acute, ca 3 x 2 mm; tube narrow, ca 4 x 2 mm, densely villous at throat, pubescent, glandular outside. Stamens 4, didynamous; filaments slender, 7-8 mm long, hairy at base, anthers oblong, ca 1 mm long, basifixed. Ovary globose, ca 1 mm, gland-dotted at apex, glabrous at base; style slender, ca 1.5 cm long, glabrous; stigma 2-lobed; lobes subulate, equal. Drupes subglobose or ovoid, ca 6 x 5 mm, black when mature, glabrous; fruiting-calyx cupular, ca 1 cm across, membranous, pubescent."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Woody Subshrub
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

Coastal areas and plains
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100-1700 m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: May-July
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Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: Round the year.
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Life Cycle

Persistence: PERENNIAL, Long-lived

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Vitex trifolia

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Vitex trifolia

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Uses: FOOD, Fruit

Production Methods: Cultivated

Comments: The tree produces large quantities of olive like fruits, with an agreeable sweet taste.

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Uses

Medicinal
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Wikipedia

Vitex trifolia

Vitex trifolia (simpleleaf chastetree) is a large coastal shrub or small tree.[1]

Description[edit]

Vitex trifolia is a large coastal shrub or small tree, less than 5 m in height with the stems covered by soft hairs (tomentose). The leaves are oppositely arranged along the stems and are usually compound, composed of 3 linear leaflets which range between 1 –12 cm in length. The upper surface of the leaves are green and the lower surface grayish green.

The flowers are born in panicles or clusters up to 18 cm in length. Individual flowers have purple to violet two-lipped corollas that are approximately 5 mm long. The stamen are in two pairs and the ovary is superior, or develops above the corolla. The fleshy fruits are about 6 mm in diameter and contain 4 small black seeds.

Distribution[edit]

Vitex trifolia is naturally found along coastlines from tropical East Africa as far east as French Polynesia.

Traditional medicine[edit]

The leaves are used to treat female ailments in the Cook Islands, and used to relieve fever in Samoa.[citation needed] Additionally in Samoa, the dried leaves are burned to deter mosquitos.[citation needed]

Indigenous Names[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "GRIN Species Records of Vitex". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-12-12. 
  2. ^ Vitex trifolia, Dr. K.M. Nadkarni's Indian Materia Medica, by A.K. Nadkarni, Popular Prakashan, Bombay, 1976, pp: 1281-2.

Details on Vitex trifolia

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Notes

Comments

A rare or undercollected species in our area.
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