Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This is a native perennial plant that is about 3' tall. It has a stout central stem with four prominent ridges, while much smaller side stems may appear above the leaf axils in the upper half of the plant. The opposite leaves are up to 5" long and 2½" across. They are broadly ovate or lanceolate, coarsely serrated, and have deep venation. The lower leaves have short stout petioles, while the upper leaves are sessile. At the end of each stem is a terminal spike of numerous small flowers from 1-5" long. The flowers are white or light lavender with some purple near the base of the lower lip. Each flower is about 1/3" long, with a greatly reduced upper lip and a long lower lip with a complicated structure. This lower lip functions as a landing pad for insect visitors, above which are two pairs of lateral petal-like extensions. The blooming period occurs from mid- to late summer, and lasts about 1½ months. There is no noticeable scent to the flowers. Each flower produces four round, coarsely pitted seeds with scattered white hairs. The root system is fibrous and rhizomatous. This plant spreads readily to form sizeable colonies. Cultivation
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Range and Habitat in Illinois

This is a common plant that occurs in every county of Illinois (see Distribution Map). Habitats include moist black soil prairies, edges of bottomland forests, thickets, moist meadows along rivers, edges of marshes, and around seeps. American Germander can also be found in more developed areas, such as abandoned fields, partially shaded vacant lots, poorly drained waste areas, and along ditches near roads and railroads. Faunal Associations
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Teucrium littorale E.P. Bicknell:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Teucrium occidentale var. boreale (E.P. Bicknell) Fernald:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Teucrium mexicanum Sessé & Moc.:
Mexico (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Teucrium canadense L.:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)
Caribbean (Caribbean)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
China (Asia)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Physical Description

Type Information

Holotype for Teucrium occidentale subsp. viscidum Piper
Catalog Number: US 441297
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): F. Kreager
Year Collected: 1902
Locality: Mission., Spokane / Stevens, Washington, United States, North America
  • Holotype: Piper, C. V. 1906. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 11: 487.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

This is a common plant that occurs in every county of Illinois (see Distribution Map). Habitats include moist black soil prairies, edges of bottomland forests, thickets, moist meadows along rivers, edges of marshes, and around seeps. American Germander can also be found in more developed areas, such as abandoned fields, partially shaded vacant lots, poorly drained waste areas, and along ditches near roads and railroads. Faunal Associations
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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects and Birds of American Germander in Illinois

Teucrium canadense (American Germander)
(bees collect pollen or seek nectar; Syrphid flies suck nectar or feed on pollen; hummingbirds & other insects suck nectar; most observations are from Robertson, otherwise they are from Mitchell, Moure & Hurd, Graenicher, and Conger as indicated below)

Birds
Trochilidae: Archilochus colubris sn

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn cp fq; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus affinis sn/cp (Cng), Bombus fervida sn/cp (Cng), Bombus fraternus sn, Bombus griseocallis sn fq, Bombus impatiens sn fq, Bombus pensyvlanica sn fq (Rb, Cng), Bombus vagans sn, Psithyrus variabilis sn; Anthophoridae (Anthophorini): Anthophora abrupta sn, Anthophora walshii sn; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn np fq (Rb, Cng); Anthophoridae (Epeolini): Triepeolus concavus sn, Triepeolus lunatus concolor sn fq, Triepeolus simplex sn; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Florilegus condigna sn cp fq, Melissodes sp. sn/cp (Cng), Melissodes agilis sn, Melissodes bimaculata bimaculata sn fq, Melissodes communis sn, Melissodes comptoides sn fq, Melissodes denticulata sn, Melissodes tepaneca sn, Melissodes trinodis sn, Svastra obliqua obliqua sn; Anthophoridae (Xylocopini): Xylocopa virginica sn/cp (Cng); Megachilidae (Coelioxini): Coelioxys germana sn; Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile brevis brevis sn cp fq, Megachile inimica sayi sn, Megachile latimanus sn/cp (Mch), Megachile mendica sn; Megachilidae (Osmiini): Hoplitis pilosifrons sn

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea sn/cp (MH, Cng), Agapostemon splendens sn/cp (Cng), Agapostemon virescens sn, Augochlora purus purus sn np, Augochlorella striata sn np, Halictus rubicunda sn; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena carlini sn/cp (Cng)

Wasps
Scoliidae: Campsomeris plumipes sn (Cng); Sphecidae (Bembicinae): Bembix nubilipennis sn; Vespidae (Eumeninae): Euodynerus foraminatus sn (Cng)

Flies
Syrphidae: Allograpta obliqua sn/fp (Cng), Eristalis tenax sn/fp (Cng), Eupeodes americanus sn/fp (Cng), Syritta pipiens sn/fp (Cng); Bombyliidae: Exoprosopa fasciata sn, Exoprosopa fascipennis sn, Systoechus vulgaris sn (Rb, Gr); Conopidae: Physocephala texana sn, Stylogaster biannulata sn

Butterflies
Lycaenidae: Everes comyntas sn; Pieridae: Colias philodice sn, Pieris rapae sn (Cng); Papilionidae: Battus philenor sn (Rb, Cng)

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Anatrytone logan sn, Epargyreus clarus sn (Cng), Polites peckius sn

Moths
Sphingidae: Hemaris diffinis sn

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Teucrium canadense

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Teucrium canadense

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG

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