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Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution in Egypt

North Sinai, Nile Valley North of Nubia (Location: Delta), Nile Valley North of Nubia (Location: Fayium), Nile Valley North of Nubia, Nubia, Libyan Desert Oases, Nubian Desert Oases, Isthmic Desert, Galala Desert, Libyan Desert, Nubian Desert, Gebel Oweinat.

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Global Distribution

Europe, North Africa, southwest Asia to Pakistan, cosmopolitan as introduced.

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Distribution in Egypt

Eastern desert, Res Sea coastal strip, Gebel Elba and Sinai.

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Global Distribution

Canary Islands, Mediterranean region, Sinai, Arabia, eastwards to Pakistan and southwards to Sudan.

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Distribution: Europe, North Africa, south-west Asia, eastwards to Iran and the mountains of Tian Shan.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

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Distribution: Spain, Mediterranean regions, Afghanistan to Pakistan.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Annual herb. Stems usually 20-30 (-60) cm tall, loosely covered with short glandular hairs, branches axillary. Leaves opposite, flat, up to 6 (-8) cm long, (2-) 3-4 mm broad, narrow-linear to linear-lanceolate, attenuated upwards, apices obtuse, entire to rarely slightly dentate. Inflorescence opposite in the axils of the upper leaves. Peduncles 5-6 cm long, subpatent. Spikes dense, many flowered, 1-1.5 (-1.75) cm long, ovate-elliptic. Lower parts of the two lower most bracts rotundate-ovate, up to 4 mm long, then abruptly contracted and produced in to a narrow, thick, 4-6 mm rarely to 10 mm long acuminate upper part, covered with long white, glandular hairs; upper bracts very distinct from the lower ones, rotundate ovate to obovate, apices nearly truncate. Sepals 3.5-4 mm long, anterior concave, oblique elliptic-ovate to obovate, near the base narrow cuneate, obtuse, covered dorsally with short glandular hairs; posterior concave, ovate-lanceolate, short ciliate, dorsally covered on the keel by short, hard hairs. Corolla lobes 2 mm long, narrow-ovate, acute. Seeds 2.5-2.75 mm long, light reddish-brown, shining, narrow-elliptic.
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Description

Annual herb with well developed stems. Stems up to 30 cm long, erect to slightly ascendent, upper parts covered with short hard, glandular hairs in young plants; stem usually branched in the upper part. Leaves opposite, thin, 3-6 cm long, 1.5-3 (-4) mm broad, linear to linear-lanceolate, entire to denate, narrowed gradually at both ends, apices ± obtuse, base slightly dilated, covered sparsely with short, hard, glandular hairs. Inflorescence axillary, peduncles 3-5 cm long, spreading, hairy. Spikes 8-12 (-15) mm long, dense elliptic to short cylindrical-ovate. Bracts 3-8 mm long, slightly concave, narrow-ovate to ovate, in the upper part produced into a long, narrow acuminate part, in the upper flowers the produced parts shorter, covered with intermixed short and long glandular and nonglandular hairs. Sepals 3-3.5 (-4) mm long, anterior oblique-lanceolate, slightly acuminate, covered with similar hairs as on the bracts, posterior concave, slightly compressed, lanceolate-ovate to narrow-ovate, slightly unequal. Corolla tube up to 4 mm long, rugulose; lobes 2 mm long, narrow-ovate, acute. Seeds 2, reddish-brown, narrow-elliptic, shining, 2-3 mm long.
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Size

Height: (10-)15-50(-80) cm.

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Ecology

Habitat

Sandy and alluvial soils, often as weedy or ruderal.

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Associations

Foodplant / parasite
immersed under blackish-brown epidermis pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis subordinaria parasitises live, down-curved stem (upper part) of Plantago arenaria
Remarks: season: 6-11

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Annual.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Plantago arenaria

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Notes

Comments

An alien known from the only stray record cited above. There seems to be overlapping of characters between this and the previous species, Plantago afra, as already mentioned above also.
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Comments

Specimens collected by Miss Nishat Akhtar and Abida Begum from Swat and Hazara respectively are similar to Plantago afra in all the characters except that the bracts in these two specimens are very broad and long, even longer than the length of the spikes. Such long bracts are typical of Plantago indica but in Plantago indica the leaves are filiform and usually revolute at the margins, while these specimens have lanceolate, flat, leaves. These specimens after comparison with the types and more collection may prove to be a new variety of Plantago indica.

Official in British pharmacopical codex under psyllium, used in dysentry in the tropics.

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