The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 2000. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 2011. Lamiales of North America Update
  • AFPD. 2008. African Flowering Plants Database - Base de Donnees des Plantes a Fleurs D'Afrique.
  • Burns KC; Beaumont S. 2009. Scale-dependent trait correlations in a temperate tree community. Austral Ecology. 34: 670-677.
  • Coates Palgrave K. (revised and updated by Meg Coates Palgrave) (2002) Trees of Southern Africa 3rd edition. Struik, South Africa Pages 918 - 919as subsp. africana (Includes a picture).
  • Da Silva, M.C., Izidine, S. & Amude, A.B. (2004) A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 30 Sabonet, Pretoria Page 92as subsp. africana
  • Drummond, R.B. (1981) Common Trees of the Central Watershed Woodlands of Zimbabwe. Natural Resources Board, Harare. Pages 188 - 189as Olea europaea subsp. africana (Includes a picture).
  • F.N., Hepper., & I. Friis.   (1994).  The Plants of Pehr Forsskal's "Flora Ageyptiaco-Arabica". Kew: Kew Publishing..  
  • Fabian, A. & Germishuizen, G. (1997) Wild Flowers of Northern South Africa. Fernwood Press, Vlaeburg. Pages 296 - 297as subsp. africana (Includes a picture).
  • Green, P.S. & Kupicha, F.K. (1979) Notes on the Genus Olea Kew Bulletin 34(1) Pages 69 - 70as subsp. africana
  • Green, P.S. (2002) A Revision of Olea L. (Oleaceae) Kew Bulletin 57(1) Pages 93 - 97
  • Kupicha, F.K. (1983) Oleaceae FZ 7(1) Page 324as subsp. africana
  • L., Boulos.   (Submitted).  Flora of Egypt. Cairo: Al Hadara Publishing..  
  • Linares, J. L. 2003 [2005]. Listado comentado de los árboles nativos y cultivados en la república de El Salvador. Ceiba 44(2): 105–268.
  • Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004) A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 65
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali (eds). 1980-2005. Fl. Pakistan Univ. of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Dec 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Phiri, P.S.M. (2005) A Checklist of Zambian Vascular Plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 32 Page 82as subsp. africana
  • Sack L; Melcher PJ; Liu WH; Middleton E; Pardee T. 2006. How strong is intracanopy leaf plasticity in temperate deciduous trees?. American Journal of Botany. 93(6): 829-839.
  • Schmidt, E., Lötter, M. & McCleland, W. (2002) Trees and shrubs of Mpumalanga and Kruger National Park Jacana, Johannesburg, S Africa Pages 534 - 537as subsp. africana (Includes a picture).
  • Species Plantarum 1: 8. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.)
  • V., Täckholm.   (1974).  Students’ Flora of Egypt, 2nd Ed. Cairo: Cairo University Press..  
  • V., Täckholm., & M. Drar.   (Submitted).  Flora of Egypt. Bulletin of the Faculty of Science. Cairo: Cairo University Press..  
  • Van Wyk, B. & Malan, S. (1988) Field Guide to the Wild Flowers of the Witwatersrand and Pretoria Region Struik, Cape Town Pages 76 - 77as subsp. africana (Includes a picture).
  • Van Wyk, B. & Van Wyk, P. (1997) Field Guide to Trees of Southern Africa. Struik, South Africa Pages 346 - 347as subsp. africana (Includes a picture).
  • Vogle S. 2009. Leaves in the lowest and highest winds: temperature, force and shape. New Phytologist. 183: 13-26.
  • de Casas RFR; Vargas P; Perez-Corona; Manrique E; Garcia-Verduga C; Balaguer L. 2011. Sun and shade leaves of Olea europaea respond differently to plant size, light availability and genetic variation. Functional Ecology , Accessed March 25, 2011.
  • de Casas RR. 2011. It's good to have a shady side: sun and shade leaves play different roles in tree canopies.


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