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Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution: Species native to India, introduced as an ornamental. Also on Vieques; cultivated throughout the tropics.

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Distribution: Bengal to Ceylon and Burma, 0-600 xn. Much cultivated throughout India and Pakistan and in the tropics of both hemispheres.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Scandent or suberect shrub; branchlets pubescent. Leaves opposite or in whorls of three, entire, elliptic or broad elliptic to sub-orbicular, obtuse or acute, very variable in size, up to 9 cm long and 6 cm broad, glabrous, shining above; nerves prominent beneath; petiole short, pubescent. Flowers fragrant, in few-flowered terminal cymes, pedicels up to 6 mm; bracts linear, up to 6 mm long. Calyx teeth 5-9, c. 1 cm long, V-shaped, pubescent. Corolla white, simple or double, tube 1 cm long, lobes 5-9, oblong, acute or obtuse, or orbicular under cultivation, 1.5 cm long. Berry simple or didymous, globose, 6 mm in diameter, black when ripe, surrounded by the suberect subulate calyx teeth.
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Description

Shrubs erect or scandent, to 3 m. Branchlets terete or slightly compressed, sometimes hollow, sparsely pubescent. Leaves opposite, simple; petiole 2-6 mm, articulate, pubescent; leaf blade orbicular to elliptic or obovate, 4-12.5 × 2-7.5 cm, papery, glabrous except for tufted hairs at vein axils abaxially, both ends blunt, sometimes base subcordate; primary veins 4-6 on each side of midrib. Cymes terminal, (1 or)3(or 5)-flowered; bracts subulate, 4-8 mm. Flowers very fragrant. Pedicel 0.3-2 cm. Calyx glabrous or sparsely pubescent; lobes 8-9, linear, 5-7 mm. Corolla white; tube 0.7-1.5 cm; lobes oblong to suborbicular, 5-9 mm broad. Berry purple-black, globose, ca. 1 cm in diam. Fl. May-Aug, fr. Jul-Sep. 2n = 26*.
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Diagnostic Description

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Synonym

Nyctanthes sambac Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 6. 1753.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat & Distribution

Native to India, widely cultivated in S China and elsewhere in the world
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: warm season.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Jasminum sambac

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Jasminum sambac

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 13
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Jasminum sambac

Jasminum sambac is a species of jasmine native to South and Southeast Asia.[3] It is a small shrub or vine growing up to 0.5 to 3 m (1.6 to 9.8 ft) in height. It is widely cultivated for their attractive and sweetly fragrant flowers. The flowers are also used for perfumes and for making tea. It is known as the Arabian jasmine in English. It is the national flower of the Philippines, where it is known as Sampaguita. It is also one of the three national flowers of Indonesia.

Contents

Taxonomy and nomenclature

Jasminum sambac is classified under the genus Jasminum under the tribe Jasmineae.[4] It belongs to the olive family Oleaceae.[5]

Despite the English common name of "Arabian jasmine", Jasminum sambac is not originally native to Arabia. The habits of Jasminum sambac support a native habitat of humid tropical climates and not the arid climates of the Middle East. Early Chinese records of the plant points to the origin of Jasminum sambac as South and Southeast Asia. Jasminum sambac (and nine other species of the genus) were spread into Arabia and Persia by man, where they were cultivated in gardens. From there, they were introduced to Europe where they were grown as ornamentals and were known under the common name "sambac" in the 18th century.[6] A name which is derived from a misapplication of the Sanskrit name champaka, which refers to the fragrant flowered shrub Michelia champaca.

In 1753, Carl Linnaeus first described the plant as Nyctanthes sambac in the first edition of his famous book Systema Naturae. In 1789, William Aiton reclassified the plant to the genus Jasminum. He also coined the common English name of "Arabian jasmine",[7] cementing the misconception that it was Arabian in origin.[6]

Other common names of Jasminum sambac include:[8]

Description

Jasminum sambac is an evergreen vine or shrub reaching up to 0.5 to 3 m (1.6 to 9.8 ft) tall.[9] The species is highly variable, possibly a result of spontaneous mutation, natural hybridization, and autopolyploidy. Only a few varieties reproduce by seed in the wild. Cultivated Jasminum sambac generally do not bear seeds and the plant is reproduced solely by cuttings, layering, marcotting, and other methods of asexual propagation.[10][11][3]

The leaves are ovate, 4 to 12.5 cm (1.6 to 4.9 in) long and 2 to 7.5 cm (0.79 to 3.0 in) wide. The phyllotaxy is opposite or in whorls of three, simple (not pinnate, like most other jasmines).[12] They are smooth (glabrous) except for a few hairs at the venation on the base of the leaf.[10]

The flowers bloom all throughout the year and are produced in clusters of 3 to 12 together at the ends of branches.[11] They are strongly scented, with a white corolla 2 to 3 cm (0.79 to 1.2 in) in diameter with 5 to 9 lobes. The flowers open at night (usually around 6 to 8 in the evening), and close in the morning, a span of 12 to 20 hours.[3] The fruit is a purple to black berry 1 cm (0.39 in) in diameter.[10]

Cultivars

Jasminum sambac cultivars

'Maid of Orleans'
'Grand Duke of Tuscany'

There are numerous cultivars of Jasminum sambac which differ from each other by the shape of leaves and the structure of the corolla. The cultivars recognized include:

  • 'Maid of Orleans' - possesses flowers with a single layer of five or more oval shaped petals. It is also known as 'Mograw', 'Motiya', or 'Bela'.[13] It is the variety most commonly referred to as sampaguita and pikake.[3][11]
  • 'Belle of India' - possesses flowers with a single or double layer of elongated petals.[13]
  • 'Grand Duke of Tuscany' - possesses flowers with doubled petals. They resemble small white roses and are less fragrant than the other varieties. It is also known as 'Rose jasmine' and 'Butt Mograw'.[13] In the Philippines, it is known as kampupot.[3]
  • 'Mysore Mulli' - resembles the 'Belle of India' cultivar but has slightly shorter petals.[13]

Cultivation and uses

The sweet, heady fragrance of Jasminum sambac is its distinct feature. It is widely grown throughout the tropics from the Arabian peninsula to Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands as an ornamental plant and for its strongly scented flowers.[14] Numerous cultivars currently exist.[12]

Typically, the flowers are harvested as buds during early morning. The flower buds are harvested on basis of color, as firmness and size are variable depending on the weather. The buds have to be white, as green ones may not emit the characteristic fragrance they are known for.[11] Open flowers are generally not harvested as a larger amount of them is needed to extract oils and they lose their fragrance sooner.[3]

Jasminum sambac was adopted by the Philippine government as its national flower in 1934 by the then Governor General of the Philippines, Frank Murphy, through Proclamation No. 652.[15][16][17] Filipinos string the flowers into leis, corsages, and crowns.[18][19] These garlands are available as loose strings of blossoms or as tight clusters of buds. They are commonly sold by vendors outside churches and near stoplights.[20]

Jasminum sambac is one of the three national flowers in Indonesia (adopted in 1990), the other two being the moon orchid and the giant padma.[16] It is also the most important flower in wedding ceremonies for ethnic Indonesians, especially in the island of Java.[21]

In Hawaii, the flower is known as pikake, and are used to make fragrant leis.[11] The name 'pikake' is derived from the Hawaiian word for "Peacock", because the Hawaiian Princess Kaʻiulani was fond of both the flowers and the bird.[11][17]

In Cambodia, the flower is used as an offering to the Buddha. During flowering season which begins in June, Cambodians thread the flower buds onto a wooden needle to be presented to the Buddha.[22]

It is one of the most commonly grown ornamentals in India and Bangladesh, where it is native.[17][9] They are used to make thick garlands used as hair adornments. In Oman, Jasminum sambac features prominently on a child's first birthday. Flowers are spinkled on the child's head by other children while chanting "hol hol". The fragrant flowers are also sold packed in between large leaves of the Indian almond (Terminalia catappa) and sewn together with strips of date palm leaves.[14]

In China, the flower is processed and used as the main ingredient in jasmine tea (茉莉花茶).[6] It is also the subject of the folk song Mo Li Hua, which was censored by the People's Republic of China due to its association with the 2011 Chinese protests spurred by the Jasmine revolution of Tunisia.[23]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) online database. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?20676. Retrieved March 8, 2011. 
  2. ^ Ginés López González (2006) (in Spanish). Los árboles y arbustos de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares: especies silvestres y las principales cultivadas (2 ed.). Mundi-Prensa Libros. p. 1295. ISBN 9788484762720. http://books.google.com/books?id=1cdGlgnm4mwC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Fernando C. Sanchez, Jr., Dante Santiago, & Caroline P. Khe (2020). "Production Management Practices of Jasmine (Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton) in the Philippines". J. ISSAAS (International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences) 16 (2): 126-136. http://www.issaas.org/journal/v16/02/journal-issaas-v16n2-13-sanchez.pdf. Retrieved May 8, 2011. 
  4. ^ Klaus Kubitzki & Joachim W. Kadereit, ed (2004). The families and genera of vascular plants: Flowering plants, Dicotyledons. Lamiales (except Acanthaceae including Avicenniaceae). The families and genera of vascular plants. 7. Springer. p. 299. ISBN 9783540405931. http://books.google.com/books?id=kcSZriBQGp4C&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  5. ^ "Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton: Arabian jasmine". PLANTS profile, Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture. http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=JASA. Retrieved May 8, 2011. 
  6. ^ a b c 胡秀英 (Hu Shiu-Ying) (2003) (in Chinese with English translations). 秀苑擷英: 胡秀英敎授論文集. 商務印書館(香港). pp. 263-265. ISBN 9789620731525. http://books.google.com/books?id=hXBYfiAWhZUC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  7. ^ William Aiton (1810). Hortus Kewensis, or A catalogue of the plants cultivated in the Royal botanic garden at Kew. 1 (2 ed.). Longman. p. 16. http://books.google.com/books?id=uRAPAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  8. ^ "Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton, Oleaceae". Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER). October 18, 2006. http://www.hear.org/Pier/species/jasminum_sambac.htm. Retrieved May 8, 2011. 
  9. ^ a b Baby P. Skaria (2007). Aromatic Plants: Vol.01. Horticulture Science Series. Horticulture science. 1. New India Publishing. p. 182. ISBN 9788189422455. http://books.google.com/books?id=e68EbGOCayAC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  10. ^ a b c "Jasminum sambac (Linnaeus) Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1: 8. 1789.". Flora of China. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200017788. Retrieved May 8, 2011. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f Kenneth W. Leonhardt & Glenn I. Teves (2002). "Pikake A Fragrant-Flowered Plant for Landscapes and Lei Production". Ornamentals and Flowers (College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR), University of Hawai'i at Manoa). http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/pdf/of-29.pdf. Retrieved May 8, 2011. 
  12. ^ a b B.K. Banerji & A.K. Dwivedi. "Fragrant world of Jasmine". Floriculture Today, National Botanical Research Institute. http://www.floriculturetoday.in/fragrant-world-of-jasmine.html. Retrieved May 8, 2011. 
  13. ^ a b c d "Jasmine". House Plants, HCC Southwest College. http://swc2.hccs.edu/proberts/gallery/html/sonia_sardesai/html/jasmine.html. Retrieved May 8, 2011. 
  14. ^ a b Tony Walsh (2004). "Jasmine Scents of Arabia". Arab News Review (Saudi Research & Publishing Company (SRPC)): 1-3. ISSN 0254-833X. http://www.omanholiday.co.uk/Scents-of-Arabia-by-Tony-Walsh-for-Arab-News.pdf. Retrieved May 8, 2011. 
  15. ^ "Philippine Fast Facts: National Flower: Sampaguita". National Commission for Culture and the Arts, Republic of the Philippines. http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/culture-profile/phil-fast-facts/culture-profile-sampaguita.php. Retrieved May 8, 2011. 
  16. ^ a b "ASEAN National Flowers". ASEAN secretariat. http://www.aseansec.org/18203.htm. Retrieved May 8, 2011. 
  17. ^ a b c W. Arthur Whistler (2000). Tropical ornamentals: a guide. Timber Press. pp. 284-285. ISBN 9780881924756. http://books.google.com/books?id=IXtGAGK2LG0C&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  18. ^ Teresita L. Rosario. "Cut Flower Production in the Philippines". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/ac452e/ac452e07.htm#bm07. Retrieved May 8, 2011. 
  19. ^ Greg Nickles (2002). Philippines: the people. The lands, peoples, and cultures. Crabtree Publishing Company. p. 27. ISBN 9780778793533. http://books.google.com/books?id=oGUt7-7sGRIC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  20. ^ Robert H. Boyer (2010). Sundays in Manila. UP Press. p. 230. ISBN 9789715426305. http://books.google.com/books?id=LkTwlWpX8MEC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  21. ^ Toto Sutater & Kusumah Effendie. "Cut Flower Production in Indonesia". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/ac452e/ac452e05.htm. Retrieved May 8, 2011. 
  22. ^ James H. Wandersee & Renee M. Clary. "Divinity in Bud". Human Flower Project. http://www.humanflowerproject.com/index.php/weblog/comments/divinity_in_bud/. Retrieved May 8, 2011. 
  23. ^ "Jasmine stirrings in China: No awakening, but crush it anyway: The government goes to great lengths to make sure all is outwardly calm". The Economist. http://www.economist.com/node/18291529?story_id=18291529. Retrieved May 8, 2011. 
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Notes

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The sweet scented flowers are made into garlands for sale.
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Widely cultivated for its very fragrant flowers that are used in tea flavoring and in perfumes. The flowers and leaves are also medicinal.
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