The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


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  • Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville.
  • CONABIO. 2009. Catálogo taxonómico de especies de México. 1. In Capital Nat. México. CONABIO, Mexico City.
  • Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • Killeen, T. J., E. García Estigarribia & S. G. Beck. (eds.) 1993. Guía Árb. Bolivia 1–958. Herbario Nacional de Bolivia & Missouri Botanical Garden, Edit. Quipus srl., La Paz.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Dec 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Scoggan, H. J. 1979. Dicotyledoneae (Loasaceae to Compositae). Part 4. 1117–1711 pp. In Fl. Canada. National Museums of Canada, Ottawa.
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
  • Species Plantarum 2: 1057. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.)
  • Voss, E. G. 1996. Michigan Flora, Part III: Dicots (Pyrolaceae-Compositae). Cranbrook Inst. of Science, Ann Arbor.
  • Wallander. 2008. Systematics of Fraxinus (Oleaceae) and evolution of dioecy. Pl. Syst. Evol. 273(1–2): 25–49.
    1. Baker, Whiteford L. 1976. Eastern forest insects. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1175.  Washing-ton, DC. 642 p.
    3. Clausen, K. E., F. H. Kung, C. F. Bey, and R. A. Daniels.  1982. Variation in white ash. Silvae Genetica 30:93-97. 
    5. Erdmann, Gayne G., Frederick T. Metzger, and Robert R.  Oberg. 1979. Macronutrient deficiency symptoms in seedlings  of four northern hardwoods. USDA Forest Service, General  Technical Report NC-53. North Central Forest Experiment  Station, St. Paul, MN. 36 p.
    7. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United  States and Canada. Society of American Foresters,  Washington, DC. 148 p.
    9. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees  of the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 386. Washington, DC. 658 p.
    11. Hibben, C. F., and S. B. Silverborg. 1978. Severity and  causes of ash dieback. Journal of Arboriculture  4(12):274-279.
    13. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States  trees (native and naturalized). U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 541. Washington, DC. 375  p.
    15. Logan, K. T. 1973. Growth of tree seedlings as affected by  light intensity. V. White ash, beech, eastern hemlock, and  general conclusions. Canadian Forestry Service, Publication  1323. Ottawa, ON. 12 p.
    17. Matteoni, J. A. and W. A. Sinclair. 1985. Role of the  mycoplasmal disease, ash yellows, in decline of white ash in  New York State. Phytopathology 75:355-360.
    19. Sinclair, W. A., R. J. Iuli, A. T. Dyer, P. T. Marshall, J.  A. Matteoni, C. R. Hibben, G. R. Stanosz, and B. S. Bums.  1988. Ash yellows: geographic range and association with  decline of white ash. Phytopathology 78:1554.
    21. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service.  1975. Soil taxonomy: a basic system of soil classification  for making and interpreting soil surveys. Soil Survey staff,  coord. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook  436. Washington, DC. 754 p.
    23. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1980. Root  characteristics of some important trees of eastern forests:  a summary of the literature. USDA Forest Service, Eastern  Region, Milwaukee, WI. 217 p.
    25. von Althen, F. W. 1970. Hardwood plantations of southern  Ontario. Canadian Forestry Service, Information Report  O-X-2. Ottawa, ON. 34 p.
    27. Williams, Robert D., and Sidney H. Hanks. 1976. Hardwood  nurserymen's guide. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 473. Washington, DC. 78 p.
    29. Wright, Jonathan W. 1944. Genotypic variation in white ash.  Journal of Forestry 42:489-495.
    31. Wright, Jonathan W. 1965. White ash (Fraxinus americana  L.), revised. In Silvics of forest trees of the  United States. p. 191-196. H. A. Fowells, comp. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271.  Washington, DC.


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