The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1.  Alexander, Nancy L.; Flint, Harrison L.; Hammer, P. Allen. 1984.        Variation in cold-hardiness of Fraxinus americana stem tissue according        to geographic origin. Ecology. 65(4): 1087-1092.  [2898]
  • 10.  Farmer, Robert E., Jr.; Pitcher, John A. 1981. Pollen handling for        southern hardwoods. In: Agric. Handb. 587. Washington, DC: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 77-83.  [12654]
  • 11.  Gansner, David A.; Widmann, Richard H. 1990. Enough white ash for wooden        bats?. Northern Logger & Timber Processor. 38(10): 32-33.  [11774]
  • 13.  Goldsmith, F. B.; Boudreau, P. 1979. Height growth and apical damage of        white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) from various latitudes outplanted in        New Brunswick. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 9: 27-30.  [3716]
  • 14.  Graney, David L. 1989. Growth of oak, ash, and cherry reproduction        following overstory thinning and understory control in upland hardwood        stands of northern Arkansas. SO-74. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 245- p.        [12548]
  • 15.  Graney, David L.; Rogerson, Thomas L. 1985. Growth of oak, ash, and        cherry reproduction following overstory thinning of upland hardwood        stands in the Boston Mountains of Arkansas. In: Dawson, Jeffrey O.;        Majerus, Kimberly A., eds. Proceedings, 5th central hardwood forest        conference; 1985 April 15-17; Urbana-Champaign, IL. Urbana-Champaign,        IL: University of Illinois, Department of Forestry: 4-10.  [12646]
  • 16.  Hibben, Craig R.; Silverborg, Savel B;. 1978. Severity and causes of ash        dieback. Journal of Arboriculture. 4(12): 274-279.  [4332]
  • 17.  Hosie, R. C. 1969. Native trees of Canada. 7th ed. Ottawa, ON: Canadian        Forestry Service, Department of Fisheries and Forestry. 380 p.  [3375]
  • 19.  Lay, Daniel W. 1957. Browse quality and the effects of prescribed        burning in southern pine forests. Journal of Forestry. 55: 342-347.        [7633]
  • 1996. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 2.  Bjorkbom, J. C. 1979. Seed production and advance regeneration in        Allegheny hardwood forests. Res. Pap. NE-435. Upper Darby, PA: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest        Experiment Station. 10 p.  [12526]
  • 2000. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 2011. Lamiales of North America Update
  • 21.  McGee, Charles E. 1980. The effect of fire on species dominance in young        upland hardwood stands. In: Proceedings, mid-south upland hardwood        symposium for the practicing forester and land manager; [Date of        conference unknown]
  • 22.  Michael, Edwin D. 1988. Effects of white-tailed deer on Appalachian        hardwood regeneration. In: Smith, H. Clay; Perkey, Arlyn W.; Kidd,        William E., Jr., eds. Guidelines for regenerating Appalachian hardwood        stands: Workshop proceedings; 1988 May 24-26; Morgantown, WV. SAF Publ.        88-03. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Books: 89-96.  [13936]
  • 23.  Millers, Imants; Shriner, David S.; Rizzo, David. 1989. History of        hardwood decline in the eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-126.        Bromall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,        Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 75 p.  [10925]
  • 24.  Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of        the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of        North Carolina Press. 1183 p.  [7606]
  • 26.  Runde, Douglas E.; Capen, David E. 1987. Characteristics of northern        hardwood trees used by cavity-nesting birds. Journal of Wildlife        Management. 51(1): 217-223.  [13743]
  • 27.  Schlesinger, Richard C. 1990. Fraxinus americana L.  white ash. In:        Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics        of North America. Vol. 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC:        U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 333-338.  [13965]
  • 28.  Twight, Peter A.; Minckler, Leon S. 1972. Ecological forestry for the        Northern hardwood forest. Washington, DC: National Parks and        Conservation Association. 12 p.  [3508]
  • 29.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982.        National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names.        SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p.  [11573]
  • 3.  Chappelka, A. H.; Chevone, B. I.; Burk, T. E. 1988. Growth response of        green and white ash seedlings to ozone, sulfur dioxide, and simulated        acid rain. Forest Science. 34(4): 1016-1029.  [6165]
  • 30.  Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest.        Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p.  [7707]
  • 31.  Vogel, Willis G. 1981. A guide for revegetating coal minesoils in the        eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-68. Broomall, PA: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest        Experiment Station. 190 p.  [15575]
  • 32.  Wright, Jonathan W. 1953. Notes on flowering and fruiting of        northeastern trees. Station Paper No. 60. Upper Darby, PA: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest        Experiment Station. 38 p.  [5009]
  • 33.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region. 1989.        Final environmental impact statement. Vegetation management in the        Coastal Plain/Piedmont. Vol. 1. Management Bulletin R8-MB-23. Atlanta,        GA. 351 p.  [10220]
  • 34.  St. John, Harold. 1973. List and summary of the flowering plants in the        Hawaiian islands. Hong Kong: Cathay Press Limited. 519 p.  [25354]
  • 4.  Clark, Alexander, III; Schroeder, James G. 1986. Weight, volume, and        physical properties of major hardwood species in the southern        Appalachian Mountains. Res. Pap. SE-253. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department        of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Experiment Station. 63 p.        [11023]
  • 5.  Clark, F. Bryan. 1962. White ash, hackberry, and yellow-poplar seed        remain viable when stored in the forest litter. Indiana Academy of        Science Proceedings. 1962: 112-114.  [237]
  • 6.  Coffman, Michael S.; Alyanak, Edward; Resovsky, Richard. 1980. Field        guide habitat classification system: For Upper Peninsula of Michigan and        northeast Wisconsin. [Place of publication unknown]
  • 7.  DeGraaf, Richard M; Shigo, Alex L. 1985. Managing cavity trees for        wildlife in the Northeast. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-101. Broomall, PA: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest        Experiment Station. 21 p.  [13481]
  • 8.  Ellis, Robert C. 1979. Response of crop trees of sugar maple, white ash,        and black cherry to release and fertilization. Canadian Journal of        Forestry. 9(2): 179-188.  [12508]
  • Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville.
  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. External link.
  • CONABIO. 2009. Catálogo taxonómico de especies de México. 1. In Capital Nat. México. CONABIO, Mexico City.
  • Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Gleason, H. A. 1968. The Sympetalous Dicotyledoneae. vol. 3. 596 pp. In H. A. Gleason Ill. Fl. N. U.S. (ed. 3). New York Botanical Garden, New York.
  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2014. Illinois Wildflowers. World Wide Web electronic publication., version 06/2014.
    See: Botanical Terminology and Line DrawingsEcological TerminologyWebsite DescriptionLinks to Other WebsitesReference Materials
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • Killeen, T. J., E. García Estigarribia & S. G. Beck. (eds.) 1993. Guía Árb. Bolivia 1–958. Herbario Nacional de Bolivia & Missouri Botanical Garden, Edit. Quipus srl., La Paz.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Apr 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Rhodora 49(582): 159. 1947. (Rhodora)
  • Scoggan, H. J. 1979. Dicotyledoneae (Loasaceae to Compositae). Part 4. 1117–1711 pp. In Fl. Canada. National Museums of Canada, Ottawa.
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
  • Species Plantarum 2: 1057. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.)
  • Synoptical Flora of North America 2(1): 75. 1878. (Syn. Fl. N. Amer.)
  • Type fragment: Gray, A. 1878. Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 2: 75.
  • Voss, E. G. 1996. Michigan Flora, Part III: Dicots (Pyrolaceae-Compositae). Cranbrook Inst. of Science, Ann Arbor.
  • Wallander. 2008. Systematics of Fraxinus (Oleaceae) and evolution of dioecy. Pl. Syst. Evol. 273(1–2): 25–49.
    1. Baker, Whiteford L. 1976. Eastern forest insects. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1175.  Washing-ton, DC. 642 p.
    3. Clausen, K. E., F. H. Kung, C. F. Bey, and R. A. Daniels.  1982. Variation in white ash. Silvae Genetica 30:93-97. 
    5. Erdmann, Gayne G., Frederick T. Metzger, and Robert R.  Oberg. 1979. Macronutrient deficiency symptoms in seedlings  of four northern hardwoods. USDA Forest Service, General  Technical Report NC-53. North Central Forest Experiment  Station, St. Paul, MN. 36 p.
    7. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United  States and Canada. Society of American Foresters,  Washington, DC. 148 p.
    9. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees  of the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 386. Washington, DC. 658 p.
    11. Hibben, C. F., and S. B. Silverborg. 1978. Severity and  causes of ash dieback. Journal of Arboriculture  4(12):274-279.
    13. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States  trees (native and naturalized). U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 541. Washington, DC. 375  p.
    15. Logan, K. T. 1973. Growth of tree seedlings as affected by  light intensity. V. White ash, beech, eastern hemlock, and  general conclusions. Canadian Forestry Service, Publication  1323. Ottawa, ON. 12 p.
    17. Matteoni, J. A. and W. A. Sinclair. 1985. Role of the  mycoplasmal disease, ash yellows, in decline of white ash in  New York State. Phytopathology 75:355-360.
    19. Sinclair, W. A., R. J. Iuli, A. T. Dyer, P. T. Marshall, J.  A. Matteoni, C. R. Hibben, G. R. Stanosz, and B. S. Bums.  1988. Ash yellows: geographic range and association with  decline of white ash. Phytopathology 78:1554.
    21. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service.  1975. Soil taxonomy: a basic system of soil classification  for making and interpreting soil surveys. Soil Survey staff,  coord. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook  436. Washington, DC. 754 p.
    23. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1980. Root  characteristics of some important trees of eastern forests:  a summary of the literature. USDA Forest Service, Eastern  Region, Milwaukee, WI. 217 p.
    25. von Althen, F. W. 1970. Hardwood plantations of southern  Ontario. Canadian Forestry Service, Information Report  O-X-2. Ottawa, ON. 34 p.
    27. Williams, Robert D., and Sidney H. Hanks. 1976. Hardwood  nurserymen's guide. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 473. Washington, DC. 78 p.
    29. Wright, Jonathan W. 1944. Genotypic variation in white ash.  Journal of Forestry 42:489-495.
    31. Wright, Jonathan W. 1965. White ash (Fraxinus americana  L.), revised. In Silvics of forest trees of the  United States. p. 191-196. H. A. Fowells, comp. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271.  Washington, DC.


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