Overview

Distribution

North America. Introduced in Europe (Loch Ness).

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© Solà, Eduard

Source: Continenticola

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Swan's Island (Swans Island), Maine, USA
Collection date: prior to 1937
Salin: freshwater

Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
Collection date: prior to 1937
Salin: freshwater
Comments: described by Girard and Woodworth from the vicinity of Cambridge.

New Haven Harbor, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
Collection date: prior to 1937
Salin: freshwater
Comments: typical specimens.

Yonkers, New York, USA
Collection date: prior to 1937
Salin: freshwater
Comments: spring-fed stream.

Princeton, New Jersey, USA
Collection date: prior to 1937
Salin: freshwater
Comments: specimens provided by Professor Dahlgren of Princeton, University.

New Haven Harbor, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
Collection date: 1933 or earlier
Salin: freshwater

New Haven Harbor, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
Collection date: 1931 or earlier
Salin: freshwater

Mount Desert Island, Maine, USA
Collection date: 1933 or earlier
Salin: freshwater

Powerhouse Brook, Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery, Orland, Maine, USA
Collection date: Aug 28, 1968
Salin: freshwater
Comments: Powerhouse Brook near Orland, at entrance of road to Craig Brook National Hatchery, 1.4 miles east of the hatchery, in a dammed-up pond above the bridge on the road, 21.3 degrees C., 7 specimens under stones and pieces of wood.

Stillwater River, Penobscot County, Maine, USA
Collection date: Aug 28, 1968
Salin: freshwater
Comments: Stillwater River, below the dame at Stillwater, moderate current, 20.8 degrees C., several specimens (some mature) collected under stones.

Somerville, Massachusetts, USA
Collection date: 1891 or earlier
Salin: freshwater

Falmouth, Massachusetts, USA
Collection date: 1901 or earlier
Salin: freshwater

Falmouth, Massachusetts, USA
Collection date: 1904 or earlier
Salin: freshwater

Falmouth, Massachusetts, USA
Collection date: 1906 or earlier
Salin: freshwater

Falmouth, Massachusetts, USA
Collection date: 1907 or earlier
Salin: freshwater

Falmouth, Massachusetts, USA
Collection date: 1908 or earlier
Salin: freshwater

Falmouth, Massachusetts, USA
Collection date: 1909 or earlier
Salin: freshwater

Falmouth, Massachusetts, USA
Collection date: 1931 or earlier
Salin: freshwater

Woods Hole,Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA
Collection date: 1900 or earlier
Salin: freshwater

Woods Hole,Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA
Collection date: 1900 or earlier
Salin: freshwater

Woods Hole,Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA
Collection date: 1913 or earlier
Salin: freshwater

Seekonk, Bristol County, Massachusetts, USA
Collection date: 1941 or earlier
Salin: freshwater

Bradley Palmer State Park, Ipswich River, Essex County, Massachusetts, USA
Collection date: Jan 1970
Salin: freshwater
Comments: 2 mature specimens collected by Dr. R.A. Raff.

Concord, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, USA
Collection date: 1957 or earlier
Salin: freshwater
Comments: spring in Concord, together with Phagocata morgani.

Province of New Brunswick, Canada
Collection date: 1969 or earlier
Salin: freshwater
Comments: and personal communciation from Ball to Kenk.

Port-aux-Basques, Province of Newfoundland, Canada
Collection date: 1952 or earlier
Salin: freshwater

Province of Newfoundland, Canada
Collection date: 1969 or earlier
Salin: freshwater
Comments: personal communication from Ball IR.

Table Mountain, Province of Newfoundland, Canada
Collection date: 1952 or earlier
Salin: freshwater

Province of Nova Scotia, Canada
Collection date: 1969 or earlier
Salin: freshwater
Comments: personal communciation from Ball IR to Kenk.

Saint Lawrence River, Ontario, Canada
Collection date: 1969 or earlier
Salin: freshwater

Saint Lawrence River, Ontario, Canada
Collection date: 1969 or earlier
Salin: freshwater
Comments: personal communciation from Ball IR to Kenk.

Anticosti Island, Province of Quebec, Canada
Collection date: 1970 or earlier
Salin: freshwater

Invermoriston, Loch Ness, Scotland, United Kingdom
Collection date: 1981 or earlier
Salin: freshwater
Comments: stony shore at Invermoriston, a few miles north of Fort Augustus. Introduced species [see note]
  • Ball IR. 1969.   . An annotated checklist of the freshwater Tricladida of the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. Can J Zool 47: 59-64.
  • Kenk R. 1970. index card avail.
     . Freshwater triclads (Turbellaria) of North America. IV. The polypharyngeal species of Phagocata. Smithson Contrib Zool 80: 1-18.
  • Hyman LH. 1937. index card avail.
    abstract/note. Studies on the morphology, taxonomy, and distribution of North American Triclad Turbellaria. VII. The two species confused under the name Phagocata gracilis, the validity of the generic name Phagocata. Transact Amer Micr Soc 56:298-310.
  • Hyman LH. 1931. index card avail.
     . Studies on the morphology, taxonomy, and distribution of North American triclad Turbellaria. IV. Recent European revisions of the triclads, and their appl to American forms, with a key to the latter, and new notes on distribution. Trans Am Microsc Soc 50:316-335.
  • Teal JM. 1957.   . Community Metabolism in a Temperate Cold Spring. Ecological Monographs, 27: 283-302.
  • Buchanan JW. 1933.   . Regeneration in Phagocata gracilis (Leidy). Physiol Zool 6: 185-204.
  • Blake CH. 1933.   . Platyhelminthes. In: William Procter, Biological Survey of Mount Desert Region, 5: 127-129. Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Philadelphia.
  • Woodworth WM. 1891. index card avail.
     . Contributions to the morphology of the Turbellaria. I. On the structure of Phagocata gracilis, Leidy. Bull Mus Comp Zool Harvard 21: 1-42.
  • Lillie FR. 1901.  abstract/note. A comparison of power and regeneration in three genera of planarians. (Zool. Club Univ. Chicago) Science, n.s., 13: 1026-1031.
  • Morgan TH. 1904.  abstract/note. Notes on Regeneration. The Limitation of the Regenerative Power of Dendrocoelum lacteum. Biol. Bull. Tom. 6. Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 1904. pages 159-172.
  • Morgan LV. 1906.  abstract/note. Regeneration of grafted Pieces of Planarians. Journal of Exper. Zool. Vol 3: 269-294, textfigs 1-17 (24 Figures). Baltimore 1906.
  • Walter HE. 1907.   . The reactions of planarians to light. Journ. Exp. Zool. 5: 35-162, 14 f.
  • Wilhelmi J. 1908. index card avail.
     . Sinnesorgane der Auriculargegend bei Suesswassertricladen. Zool. Anz. 33, p. 388-393, 10 f.
  • Wilhelmi J. 1909. index card avail.
     . Tricladen. Fauna und Flora d Golfes v Neapel 32: 1-405, 16 pl.
  • Sivickis PB. 1931.  abstract/note. A quantitative study of regeneration along the main axis of the triclad body. In Atti dell'XI Congresso Internationale di Zoologia, Padova 1930. Archivio zool. Italiano 16: 430-449, 7 f.
  • Morgan TH. 1900.  abstract/note. Regeneration in Planarians. Arch. f. Entwickelungsmech. 10: 58-119, 31 figures. (Mit einer deutschen Zusammenfassung.).
  • Child CM. 1913.   . Studies on the Dynamics of Morphogenesis and Inheritance in Experimental Reproduction. VI. The Nature of the Axial Gradients in Planaria and Their Relation to Antero-Posterior Dominance, Polarity and Symmetry. Archiv. für Entwicklungsmechanik der Organismen, 37: 108-158.
  • Castle WA. 1941.  abstract/note. The morphology and life history of Hymanella retenouva, a new species of triclad from New England. Am. Midland Naturalist 26: 85-97.
  • Luther A. 1952. index card avail.
     . Eine polypharyngeale Planarie aus New Foundland. Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 27; 1950-1951: 79-80.
  • Ball IR. 1969.   . Dugesia lugubris (Tricladida: Pauludicola) a European immigrant into North American fresh waters. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 26:221-228.
  • Ball IR, Fernando CH. 1970.   . Freshwate triclads (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria) from Anticosti Island. Naturaliste Canadien 97: 331-336.
  • Reynoldson TB, Smith DB, Maitland PS. 1981.   . A species of North American triclad new to Britain found in Loch Ness, Scotland. J. Zool. (Lond) 193: 531-538.
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© National Science Foundation - Turbellarian Taxonomic Database

Source: Turbellarian Taxonomic Database

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Hyman LH 1937 (citation)- Discussion of this species and confusing it with P. gracilis. She notes: 'I have had specimens of this species from Swan's Island, Maine; it was described by Girard and Woodworth from the vicinity of Cambridge, Massachusetts, where I also have found it; and I have taken typical specimens at New Haven, Connecticut. Material found in a spring-fed stream near Yonkers, New York, has also proved to be P. woodworthi and specimens sent to me from Princeton, New Jersey, through the kindness of Professor Dahlgren of Princeton University, were either identical with New England specimens in the details of the copulatory apparatus or differed slightly from them. The Delaware River therefore constitutes the boundary betweehn P. gracilis and P. woodworthi with some evidence of transitional features in New Jersey material.' 

 Kenk R 1972 (citation)- p 44, "Northeastern parts of the U.S. north of the Delaware River and eastern Canada as far west as Ontario." 

 Kenk R 1970 (citation)- p 13, 'Little is known about the ecological requirements of P. woodworthi. It is generally taken in ponds and rivers, more rarely in cold streams and springs. The fact that it often shares its habitat with such eurythermic species as Dugesia tigrina (Girard) and Procotyla fluviatilis Leidy suggests that it tolerates greater temperature fluctuations that does P. gracilis.' 

 Ball & Reynoldson 1981 (citation)- p. 88, "The introduction of thos species has probably occurred from cocoons on equipment brought over by American scientists in search of the Loch Ness 'Monster'. It is a large and vigorous species and its spread in Britain should be monitored."
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© National Science Foundation - Turbellarian Taxonomic Database

Source: Turbellarian Taxonomic Database

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Average rating: 2.5 of 5

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