Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Endemic to the Canyon Lands of southeastern Utah and adjacent Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico (Cronquist et al. 1984, Heil et al. 2002). The report of M. eastwoodiae from Nevada was based on misidentified M. cardinalis (Cronquist et al. 1984). Total range extent appears to be approximately 60,000 square km.

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

From CNHP Wetland Guide 2012:
Main Characteristics:
·Flowers bright red to orange-red, 30-40 mm long
·Stoloniferous, glandular-pubescent
·Found in cracks and overhanging cliff walls in southwest Colorado

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Type Information

Holotype for Mimulus cardinalis var. rigens Greene
Catalog Number: US 279182
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): S. B. Parish
Year Collected: 1896
Locality: Vicinity of San Bernandino., San Bernardino, California, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 305 to 457
  • Holotype: Greene, E. L. 1909. Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 2: 2.
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Holotype for Mimulus cardinalis var. griseus Greene
Catalog Number: US 340167
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): B. Trask
Year Collected: 1896
Locality: Avalon., Los Angeles, Santa Catalina Island, California, United States, North America
  • Holotype: Greene, E. L. 1909. Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 2: 2.
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Isotype for Mimulus eastwoodiae Rydb.
Catalog Number: US 765350
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): P. A. Rydberg & A. O. Garrett
Year Collected: 1911
Locality: Along San Juan River, near bluffs., Utah, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 1200 to 1500
  • Isotype: Rydberg, P. A. 1913. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 40: 483.
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Moist seeps and hanging garden communities in sandstone cliffs in the Canyonlands. Co-occurring species include Primula specuicola, Adiantum capillus-veneris, Aquilegia micrantha, and Epipactis gigantea.

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80

Comments: In Colorado, approximately 8 occurrences (depending on delineation) are known from 4 counties (Montrose, Mesa, San Miguel, and Delta); nearly all of these occurrences have been visited recently (1997 or later). In Arizona, approximately 5 occurences (depending on delineation) are known from 3 counties (Apache, Navajo, and Coconino); nearly all of these occurrences have been visited recently as well (2001 or later). In Utah, 10 occurrences are believed extant in 4 counties (Garfield, Grand, Kane, and San Juan), although they have not been re-visited recently (last visited between 1952 and 1986). An additional 11 occurrences in Utah are believed historical. In the Navajo Nation, surveys of the species' hanging garden habitat have been conducted, but individual occurrences have not been mapped; so far, it has been documented in approximately 30-40 hanging gardens (D. Roth, pers. comm. 2008). The New Mexico occurrence (on Navajo Nation lands) was discovered in 2002 and is close to the Arizona border.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N3 - Vulnerable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G3 - Vulnerable

Reasons: Mimulus eastwoodiae is endemic to the Canyon Lands of southeastern Utah and adjacent Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Approximately 25 occurrences have been mapped, and an additional 30-40 sites have been documented in the Navajo Nation. The hanging garden communities in which this species occurs are vulnerable to any disturbance of the water supply, which can occur due to prolonged drought, global climate change, or water development projects. While this species is relatively widespread and drought-tolerant compared to other hanging garden endemics of this region, these ongoing threats to its habitat will eventually impact its persistence and are a concern. Other threats, including disturbance by livestock and humans, are considered relatively minor because many sites have low accessibility.

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Threats

Degree of Threat: Medium

Comments: Occurs in hanging garden communities around seeps. These communities are vulnerable to any disturbance of the water supply, which can occur due to prolonged drought, global climate change, or water development projects. Many hanging gardens in the Navajo Nation have been documented to be drying out; while this species is among the longest lasting plants in drought-stressed hanging gardens, continued drying will eventually cause extirpations (D. Roth, pers. comm. 2008). Threats of lower magnitude include livestock access, which may threaten plants though trampling and other impacts. Also, frequent visits to these communities by humans can be detrimental, as they are rather fragile (particularly those located on unstable slopes); however, most known occurrences are not very accessible to humans and are rarely visited (CNHP 1998).

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