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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

Corn Speedwell is one of several annual Veronica spp. (Speedwell species) that have been introduced from Europe. They are usually very weedy species. Because Corn Speedwell is small and not very showy, it is easy to overlook. The flowers are a lovely shade of blue-violet or blue, but they are very small in size and short-lived. Corn Speedwell can be distinguished from other similar species by its nearly sessile flowers and seed capsules, and the narrow alternate leaves (or leafy bracts) along the upper two-thirds of its stems. Its flowers are usually a deeper shade of blue than those of similar species. Another common name of Veronica arvensis is Field Speedwell.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Description

This introduced annual wildflower is 2-8" tall. It often branches near the base, but its stems are unbranched above. The slender stems are light green and hairy. The lower leaves are up to 3/8" long and across; they are yellowish green to green, hairy, oval-orbicular, crenate along their margins, and opposite. The petioles of the lower leaves are very short (about 1/8" long). As a plant matures, there is a tendency for the lower leaves to turn brown and wither away. The middle to upper leaves, where the flowers develop, are up to ¼" long, linear-oblong to lanceolate in shape, smooth or slightly crenate along their margins, sessile or nearly so, and alternate. Like the lower leaves, they are yellowish green to green and hairy. Solitary flowers develop from the axils of the middle to upper alternate leaves. Each flower is 1/8" across, consisting of a blue-violet to blue corolla with 4 petal-like lobes, 4 hairy green sepals, 2 stamens with white anthers, and a pistil with a single style. The corolla usually has a few faint veins originating from the center of the flower. The sepals are lanceolate-oblong and somewhat longer than the corolla. The tiny flowers bloom near the apex of the stems from mid-spring to mid-summer for 1-3 months. Each flower is replaced by an obcordate (heart-shaped) seed capsule. Individual seed capsules are 1/8" long, 1/8" across, somewhat flattened, and ciliate. Both the flowers and seed capsules are nearly sessile. Each seed capsule is 2-celled and contains many tiny seeds. The root system consists of a slender much-branched taproot. This wildflower reproduces by reseeding itself and it occasionally forms colonies.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, Naturalized, Native of Mediterranean Region"
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© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Corn Speedwell is quite common and it can be found in every county of Illinois (see Distribution Map). This little weed was introduced accidentally from Europe. Habitats include scrubby savannas with sparse ground vegetation, rocky glades, fields, lawns and gardens, grassy areas along roads, and barren waste ground. Highly disturbed areas are preferred.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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Tamil Nadu: Nilgiri
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Source: India Biodiversity Portal

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Anhui, Fujian, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shandong, Taiwan [native to S Europe and SW Asia, naturalized over most of the world].
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Annuals. Stems erect or ascending, simple or branched and diffuse, 5-30 cm tall, with white multicellular hairs often concentrated along 2 lines. Leaves often 3-5 pairs, lower ones short petiolate, upper sessile; leaf blade ovate-orbicular, 5-15 X 4-10 mm, hirsute, margin crenate, veins 3-5. Racemes terminal, lax, elongated to 20 cm, many flowered, with multicellular glandular hairs; bracts alternate, leaflike, lower ones narrowly ovate and sparsely crenate, upper ones narrowly elliptic and entire. Pedicel less than 2 mm. Calyx 4-lobed, 3-4 mm; lobes linear-lanceolate, lower 2 lobes longer than upper 2. Corolla blue to blue-purple, rotate, ca. 2 mm, shorter than calyx; lobes orbicular to narrowly oblong. Stamens shorter than corolla. Capsule obcordate, strongly compressed, 2.5-3.5 X 3-4 mm, glabrous, margin glandular ciliate, apex notch very deep; lobes rounded-obtuse. Style less than 1 mm, shorter than to equalling notch. Seeds oblong, ca. 1 mm, smooth. Fl. Apr-May. 2n = 16.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Herb
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© India Biodiversity Portal

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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Corn Speedwell is quite common and it can be found in every county of Illinois (see Distribution Map). This little weed was introduced accidentally from Europe. Habitats include scrubby savannas with sparse ground vegetation, rocky glades, fields, lawns and gardens, grassy areas along roads, and barren waste ground. Highly disturbed areas are preferred.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Naturalized in waste grassy places and along roads; below 2000 m.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

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Associations

Faunal Associations

Small bees and Syrphid flies suck nectar from the flowers. Charles Robertson observed the Syrphid fly Toxomerus marginatus, and the Halictid bees Augochlorella aurata and Lasioglossum versatus visiting the flowers. However, floral visitors are uncommon and the flowers are capable of self-fertilization. The stink bug Cosmopepla lintneriana has been observed to suck juices from the foliage of Corn Speedwell (as well as many other plants). Photographic Location
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Flower-Visiting Insects of Corn Speedwell in Illinois

Veronica arvensis (Corn Speedwell) introduced
(Insects suck nectar; observations are from Robertson)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Augochlorella aurata, Lasioglossum versatus

Flies
Syrphidae: Toxomerus marginatus

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In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
sporangium of Peronospora agrestis parasitises live Veronica arvensis
Remarks: season: 2-4

Foodplant / parasite
sporangium of Peronospora verna parasitises live Veronica arvensis

Foodplant / pathogen
spore mass of Schroeteria delastrina infects and damages live capsule of Veronica arvensis
Remarks: season: 5-6

Foodplant / parasite
Sphaerotheca fuliginea parasitises live Veronica arvensis

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Veronica arvensis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Veronica arvensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 8
Specimens with Barcodes: 15
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full sun, mesic to dry-mesic conditions, and poor soil where there is reduced competition from other plants. The soil can contain sand, rocky material, loam, or clay.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Wikipedia

Veronica arvensis

Veronica arvensis (corn speedwell, common speedwell, speedwell, rock speedwell, wall speedwell [1]) is a medicinal plant [2] and noxious weed native to Africa, Asia and Europe.[3] A member of the plantain family, it is a hairy, erect to almost recumbent, annual herb, 9 to 40 cm high from a taproot. The leaves are oppositely arranged in pairs about the stem. The lower leaves have short petioles; the upper are sessile. Each leaf, 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters in length, is ovate, or triangular with a truncated or slightly cordate base, with coarse teeth. Borne in a raceme, initially compact but elongating with age, the flowers are pale blue to blue-violet, 2 to 3 mm in diameter, four-lobed with a narrow lowest lobe. Flower stalks are 0.5 to 2 mm and shorter than the bracts. It flowers from April to October.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Veronica arvensis at USDA PLANTS Database
  2. ^ Veronica arvensis at Plants For A Future
  3. ^ Veronica arvensis at Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN)


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