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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Plains, Moist Localities, Semi-aquatic"
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Brief

"Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1 Year Assessed: 2010 Assessor/s: Rehel, S. Reviewer/s: Narasimhan, D., Ravikumar, K. & Juffe Bignoli, D. Contributors: Molur, S. Justification: Bacopa monnieri is distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world. There are no major threats to this plant and therefore it is categorized as Least Concern. Conservation Actions: This species is easily cultivated."
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Miscellaneous Details

Plants used in traditional medicine.
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Herb
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Distribution

Range Description

Bacopa monnieri is distributed in tropics and subtropics of the world: in Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, China, Taiwan, Viet Nam and Pakistan. It is also found in Florida, Hawaii and southern states of USA and the Meditearranean Basin.

In India it is found in Andaman, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Kerala, Karnataka, Manipur, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal.

In the Arabian Peninsula, this species has been recorded from Bahrain, Kuwait, northern and southern Oman, UAE, Saudi Arabia and Yemen including Socotra. It occurs throughout the southern and western Peninsula.
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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"
Global Distribution

Paleotropics

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
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"Maharashtra: Common throughout Karnataka: Chikmagalur, Hassan, Mysore, N. Kanara, Shimoga Kerala: All districts Tamil Nadu: All districts"
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"Found in fallow fields, marshy places and watercoarses from plains to 1400m. Common. Pantropical."
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"Range Description: Bacopa monnieri is distributed in tropics and subtropics of the world: in Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, China, Taiwan, Vietnam and Pakistan. It is also found in Florida, Hawaii and southern states of USA and the Meditearranean Basin. In India it is found in Andaman, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Kerala, Karnataka, Manipur, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. Countries - Native: Argentina; Australia; Bahamas; Barbados; Belize; Bhutan; Bolivia; Brazil; Cambodia; Chile; China; Costa Rica; Cuba; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; El Salvador; French Guiana; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Haiti; Honduras; India (Andaman Is., Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Manipur, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal); Indonesia; Jamaica; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Madagascar; Malaysia; Martinique; Mexico; Mozambique; Nepal; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Pakistan; Panama; Peru; Philippines; Puerto Rico; Saint Lucia; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Swaziland; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Trinidad and Tobago; United States (Florida, Hawaiian Is.); Viet Nam; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S."
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Distribution in Egypt

Nile region, eastern desert, and Sinai.

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Global Distribution

Tropical and subtropical regions.

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Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan [widespread in tropics and subtropics].
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Subtropical Himalaya, India, Ceylon, east to W. & S. China, Taiwan.
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Physical Description

Morphology

"
Flower

Solitary, axillary, ebracteate; white with violet and green bands inside the throat. Flowering throughout the year.

Fruit

An oblong-globose capsule, septicidal; seeds oblong. Fruiting throughout the year.

Field tips

Stem rooting at nodes. Leaves succulent.

Leaf Arrangement

Opposite-decussate

Leaf Type

Simple

Leaf Shape

Oblong

Leaf Apex

Obtuse

Leaf Base

Cuneate

Leaf Margin

Entire

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Elevation Range

700-900 m
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Description

Stems creeping, rooting at nodes, succulent, glabrous. Leaves sessile, oblong-oblanceolate, 0.8-2 cm X 3-6 mm, margin entire or rarely dentate, apex rounded. Flowers axillary. Pedicel 0.5-3.5 cm. Bracteoles 2, linear, below calyx. Sepals 5, ca. 5 mm; lower and upper sepals ovate-lanceolate; lateral 2 sepals lanceolate to linear. Corolla blue, purple, or white, 8-10 mm, obscurely 2-lipped. Stamens didynamous. Stigma capitate. Capsule narrowly ovoid, enveloped in persistent calyx, apex acute. Seeds yellow-brown, ellipsoid, truncate at one end, longitudinally striate. Fl. May-Oct.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Aquatic or amphibious, prostrate, semi-succulent herbs; stem creeping, branches ascending. Leaves 1-1.5 x 0.4-0.6 cm, ovate-oblong or spathulate, base narrowed rounded at apex, punctate above, thick, sessile. Flowers solitary, axillary; pedicels to 2.5 cm long; bracteoles 2, up to 3 mm long. Calyx-lobes 5, unequal; outer calyx lobe c. 5 x 4 mm, ovate, others slightly smaller. Corolla bluish-white, c. 8 mm long, broadly campanulate, faintly 2-lipped; lobes 5, subequal. Stamens 4, didynamous. Ovary oblong-globose; style slightly deflexed. Capsule 3-4 x 1.5-2 mm, ovoid or oblong, enclosed in calyx. Seeds c. 0.5 mm long, oblong, reticulate."
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Diagnostic

"Habit: A prostrate succulent herb, upto 30cm."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Creeping Herb
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Synonym

Lysimachia monnieri Linnaeus, Cent. Pl. II 9. 1756; Bacopa monnieria (Linnaeus) Wettstein; Gratiola monnieri (Linnaeus) Linnaeus.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Bacopa monnieri is a perennial or sometimes annual. It grows gregariously and often forms dense mats in marshy places, the banks of pools and along streams and ditches. It can tolerate brackish water. It is mostly found in rice fields. Propagation is often achieved through cuttings. Bacopa monnieri is known to grow under varying soil and climatic conditions. The plant performs exceptionally well in poorly drained soils and waterlogged areas under subtropical conditions.

In the Arabian Peninsula, this species is described as fringing mountain pools and some wadis. If the water supply is continuous, it often colonizes small irrigated fields beneath date palms (Western 1989). In Oman, it is often found in wet, damp or moist places, sometimes inundated with changing water level, by streams, wadis, and pools.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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General Habitat

"Common in low-lying marshy places, along watercourses. Plains from the coast to 1400m. Pantropical."
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General Habitat

"Habitat and Ecology: Bacopa monnieri is a perennial or sometimes annual. It grows gregariously and often forms dense mats in marshy places, the banks of pools and along streams and ditches. It can tolerate brackish water. Mostly found in rice fields. Propagation is often achieved through cuttings. Bacopa monnieri is known to grow under varying soil and climatic conditions. The plant performs exceptionally well in poorly drained soils and waterlogged areas under subtropical conditions. Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater List of Habitats: 5, 5.2, 5.4, 15, 15.9"
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General Habitat

In the plains and mangrove forests
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Moist ground, ditches.

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By water, wet places, sandy beaches; below 1100 m.
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Depth range based on 6 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 1
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: Throughout the year
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Life Expectancy

Perennial.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Bacopa monnieri

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Lansdown, R.V., Knees, S.G. & Patzelt, A.

Reviewer/s
Ravikumar, K., Narasimhan, D., Juffe Bignoli, D. & García, N.

Contributor/s
Molur, S., Rhazi, L., Grillas, P., Rhazi, M., Flanagan, D. & Rehel, S.

Justification

This species is assessed as Least Concern as it is widespread with stable populations and does not face any major threats.


History
  • 2013
    Least Concern
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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"Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1 Year Assessed: 2010 Assessor/s: Rehel, S. Reviewer/s: Narasimhan, D., Ravikumar, K. & Juffe Bignoli, D. Contributors: Molur, S. Justification: Bacopa monnieri is distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world. There are no major threats to this plant and therefore it is categorized as Least Concern. Conservation Actions: This species is easily cultivated."
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Population

Population

There is no information available on population trends in this species. However, the populations are generally healthy and the species is widespread.


Population Trend
Stable
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Population: This is a widespread species and common where it is found. Population Trend: Stable
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Threats

Major Threats

On the Arabian Peninsula, there are no known significant past, ongoing or future threats to this species.

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Major Threat (s): This species has no specific threats.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

There are no conservation measures in place and none needed.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Medicinal
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Uses

The whole plant is highly valued for its medicinal properties.
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Wikipedia

Bacopa monnieri

Bacopa monnieri (waterhyssop, brahmi,[2] thyme-leafed gratiola, water hyssop, herb of grace,[2] Indian pennywort[2]) is a perennial, creeping herb native to the wetlands of southern India, Australia, Europe, Africa, Asia, and North and South America.[2] Bacopa is an important medicinal herb used in Ayurveda, where it is also known as "Brahmi," after Brahmā, the creator God of the Hindu pantheon. Bacopa has traditionally been employed as a neurological tonic and cognitive enhancer, and it is currently being studied for its possible neuroprotective properties.[3][4][5]

Description[edit]

The leaves of this plant are succulent, oblong and 4–6 millimeters thick. Leaves are oblanceolate and are arranged oppositely on the stem. The flowers are small and white, with four or five petals. Its ability to grow in water makes it a popular aquarium plant. It can even grow in slightly brackish conditions. Propagation is often achieved through cuttings.[6]

Ecology[edit]

It commonly grows in marshy areas throughout India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, China, Pakistan, Taiwan, and Vietnam. It is also found in Florida, Hawaii and other southern states of the United States where it can be grown in damp conditions by a pond or bog garden.[7] This plant can be grown hydroponically.

Traditional uses[edit]

Bacopa has been used in traditional Ayurvedic treatment for epilepsy and asthma.[8] It is also used in Ayurveda for ulcers, tumors, ascites, enlarged spleen, indigestion, inflammations, leprosy, anemia, and biliousness.[6]

Nomenclature[edit]

Brahmi is also the name given to Centella asiatica, particularly in North India, and Kerala where it is also identified in Malayalam as muttil (മുത്തിള്‍) or kodakan. This identification of brāhmī as C. asiatica has been in use for long in northern India, as Hēmādri's Commentary on Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayaṃ (Āyuṛvēdarasāyanaṃ) treats maṇḍūkapaṛṇī (C. asiatica) as a synonym of brahmi,[9][10] although that may be a case of mistaken identification that was introduced during the 16th century.[11]

Bacopa monnieri was initially described around the 6th century A.D. in texts such as the Charaka Samhita, Athar-Ved, and Susrutu Samhita as a medhya rasayana–class herb taken to sharpen intellect and attenuate mental deficits. The herb was allegedly used by ancient Vedic scholars to memorize lengthy sacred hymns and scriptures.

Chemical constituents[edit]

The best characterized compounds in Bacopa monnieri are dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins known as bacosides, with jujubogenin or pseudo-jujubogenin moieties as aglycone units.[12] Bacosides comprise a family of 12 known analogs.[13] Other saponins called bacopasides I–XII have been identified more recently.[14] The alkaloids brahmine, nicotine, and herpestine have been catalogued, along with D-mannitol, apigenin, hersaponin, monnierasides I–III, cucurbitacin and plantainoside B.[15][16][17]

The constituent most studied has been bacoside A, which was found to be a blend of bacoside A3, bacopacide II, bacopasaponin C, and a jujubogenin isomer of bacosaponin C.[18] These assays have been conducted using whole plant extract, and bacoside concentrations may vary depending upon the part from which they are extracted. In one Bacopa monnieri sample, Rastogi et al. found this bacoside profile—bacopaside I (5.37%), bacoside A3 (5.59%), bacopaside II (6.9%), bacopasaponin C isomer (7.08%), and bacopasaponin C (4.18%).[19]

Pharmacology[edit]

Bacopa monnieri displays in vitro antioxidant and cell-protective effects.[20] It also inhibits acetylcholinesterase, activates choline acetyltransferase, and increases cerebral blood flow.[21] In rats, bacoside A enhances antioxidation, increasing superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities.[22] Bacopa monnieri augments Th1 and Th2 cytokine production.[23]

Several studies have suggested that Bacopa monnieri extracts may have protective effects in animal models of neurodegeneration.[24][25][26][27][28][29][30] There have also been preliminary clinical studies suggesting improvement of cognitive function in humans.[3][unreliable medical source?]

Toxicology[edit]

The rat LD50 was found to be 2400 mg/kg following a single oral administration.[31] Aqueous extracts of Bacopa monnieri may elevate serum thyroxine and have adverse effects on spermatogenesis, sperm count, and fertility in male mice.[32]

The most commonly reported adverse side effects of Bacopa monnieri in humans are nausea, increased intestinal motility, and gastrointestinal upset.[33][34][non-primary source needed]

International naming[edit]

The plant is known by many names in many international languages, including:

  • ബ്രഹ്മി in Malayalam
  • நீர்ப்பிரமி (Niirpirami)/ Valaarai in Tamil
  • ผักมิ (Phak mi), พรมมิ (Phrommi) in Thai
  • ලුනු විලLunuwila in Sinhalese (Sri Lanka)
  • ʻaeʻae in Hawaiian (Hawaii)
  • Rau Đắng in Vietnamese
  • פְּשֵטָה שרועה ("psheta sru'a") in Hebrew
  • Kleines Fettblatt in German

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Bacopa monnieri information from NPGS/GRIN". www.ars-grin.gov. Retrieved 2008-03-13. 
  2. ^ a b c d "USDA GRIN Taxonomy". Retrieved 20 arch 2014.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  3. ^ a b Pase, M. P.; Kean, J.; Sarris, J.; Neale, C.; Scholey, A. B.; Stough, C. (2012). "The Cognitive-Enhancing Effects ofBacopa monnieri: A Systematic Review of Randomized, Controlled Human Clinical Trials". The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 18 (7): 647–652. doi:10.1089/acm.2011.0367. PMID 22747190.  edit
  4. ^ Russo and Borrelli, 2005. Bacopa monniera, a reputed nootropic plant: an overview. Phytomedicine. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0944711304001461
  5. ^ Aguiar, S.; Borowski, T. (2013). "Neuropharmacological Review of the Nootropic HerbBacopa monnieri". Rejuvenation Research 16 (4): 313–326. doi:10.1089/rej.2013.1431. PMC 3746283. PMID 23772955.  edit
  6. ^ a b Purdue University. "Bacopa monnieri". Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  7. ^ IUCN. "Bacopa monnieri". Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  8. ^ Rajani, M. et al. (2004). Ramawat, K. G., ed. Biotechnology of Medicinal Plants: Vitalizer and Therapeutic. Enfield, NH: Science Publishers. 
  9. ^ Warrier, P. K.; Nambiar, V. P. K.; Ramankutty, C.; Ramankutty, R. Vasudevan Nair (1996). Indian Medicinal Plants: A Compendium of 500 Species. Orient Blackswan. p. 238. ISBN 978-81-250-0301-4. 
  10. ^ Daniel, M. (2005). Medicinal Plants: Chemistry and Properties. Science Publishers. p. 225. ISBN 978-1-57808-395-4. 
  11. ^ Khare, C. P. (2003). Indian Herbal Remedies: Rational Western Therapy, Ayurvedic, and Other Traditional Usage, Botany. Springer. p. 89. ISBN 978-3-540-01026-5. 
  12. ^ Sivaramakrishna C, Rao CV, Trimurtulu G, Vanisree M, Subbaraju GV. Triterpenoid glycosides from Bacopa monnieri. Phytochemistry 2005;66:2719–2728.
  13. ^ Garai S, Mahato SB, Ohtani K, Yamasaki K. Dammarane triterpenoid saponins from Bacopa monnieri. Can J Chem 2009;87:1230–1234.
  14. ^ Chakravarty A.K, Garai S., Masuda K, Nakane T, Kawahara N. Bacopasides III–V: Three new triterpenoid glycosides from Bacopa monniera. Chem Pharm Bull 2003;51:215–217
  15. ^ Chatterji N, Rastogi RP, Dhar ML. Chemical examination of Bacopa monniera Wettst: Part II—Isolation of chemical constituents. Ind J Chem 1965;3:24–29.
  16. ^ Chakravarty AK, Sarkar T, Nakane T, Kawahara N, Masuda K. New phenylethanoid glycosides from Bacopa monniera. Chem Pharm Bull 2008;50:1616–1618.
  17. ^ Bhandari P, Kumar N, Singh B, Kaul VK. Cucurbitacins from Bacopa monnieri. Phytochemistry 2007.
  18. ^ Deepak M, Sangli GK, Arun PC, Amit A. Quantitative determination of the major saponin mixture bacoside A in Bacopa monnieri by HPLC. Phytochem Anal 2005;16: 24–29.
  19. ^ Rastogi M, Ojha R, Prabu PC, Devi DP, Agrawal A, Dubey GP. Amelioration of age associated neuroinflammation on long term bacosides treatment. Neurochem Res 2012;37: 869–874.
  20. ^ Russo A, Borrelli F (April 2005). "Bacopa monniera, a reputed nootropic plant: an overview". Phytomedicine (Review) 12 (4): 305–17. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2003.12.008. PMID 15898709. 
  21. ^ Aguiar S, Borowski T (August 2013). "Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri". Rejuvenation Res (Review) 16 (4): 313–26. doi:10.1089/rej.2013.1431. PMC 3746283. PMID 23772955. 
  22. ^ Anbarsi, K.; Vani, G.; Balakrishna, K.; Devi, C. S. (2006). "Effect of bacoside A on brain antioxidant status in cigarette smoke exposed rats". Life Science 78 (12): 1378–1384. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2005.07.030. PMID 16226278. 
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For a discussion on the nomenclature of the species, see Philcox (Kew Bull. 33: 679-680. 1979).
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