Overview

Brief Summary

Introduction

This subfamily, as currently recognized, contains only the genus Illex. These are commercially important species found in neritic waters of the North and South Atlantic (Roper et al., 1998). The number of species in the North Atlantic has been controversial, with the validity of I. oxygonius repeatedly questioned. Carlini et al. (2006) used molecular methods to confirm that three species are present in the North Atlantic, although morphological identification of specimens other than mature males can be quite difficult.

Brief diagnosis:

Ommastrephids with ...

  • suckers in eight series on tentacular club dactylus.

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Comprehensive Description

Characteristics

  1. Arms
    1. Either right or left ventral arm hectocotylized.
    2. Hectocotylus with distal protective membranes absent.


    Figure. Oral views of the distal region of the hectocotylus of Illex oxygonius. Top - Photograph by M. Vecchione. Bottom - Drawing from Roeleveld (1988). v - Ventral side.

  2. Tentacles
    1. Large, medial club suckers with smooth or bluntly crenulated inner rings.
    2. Dactylus of tentacular club with suckers in eight series.
    3. Carpal locking-apparatus absent.

    Figure. Oral view of the dactylus of the tentacular club of Illex sp. Photograph by M. Vecchione.

  3. Head
    1. Funnel groove without foveola or side pockets.

  4. Photophores
    1. Photophores absent.

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Distribution

Found only in the Atlantic Ocean. Western Atlantic Ocean from Equator to Iceland and from southern Brazil to Patagonia, and eastern Atlantic from 20°S to 60°N, including Mediterranean Sea. These species are generally confined to continental shelf and slope areas, or nearby oceanic waters, perhaps because of their habit of sitting on the bottom at depths of up to 1000 m.

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 34605 specimens in 7 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 25178 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): -9 - 3008
  Temperature range (°C): -0.940 - 25.796
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.488 - 37.296
  Salinity (PPS): 30.660 - 38.792
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.917 - 8.230
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.096 - 2.352
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.993 - 27.828

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): -9 - 3008

Temperature range (°C): -0.940 - 25.796

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.488 - 37.296

Salinity (PPS): 30.660 - 38.792

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.917 - 8.230

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.096 - 2.352

Silicate (umol/l): 0.993 - 27.828
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

All species of Illex appear to congregrate, at least on occasion, near the ocean floor and spend time sitting on the ocean floor. Videos of Illex swimming near the ocean floor can be seen here.


Figure. Left - Group of Illex sp., swimming near the ocean floor at about 600 m. Right - Illex coindetii sitting on the ocean floor. © Michael Vecchione

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:63Public Records:43
Specimens with Sequences:58Public Species:6
Specimens with Barcodes:58Public BINs:5
Species:9         
Species With Barcodes:7         
          
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Illex

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Illex

Illex, commonly known as shortfin squids, is a squid genus in the family Ommastrephidae and the only member of the subfamily Illicinae. It contains four species:[2]

References

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Source: Wikipedia

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