Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

This is the most common and weedy goldenrod in Illinois. The flowers are especially attractive to many species of wasps and flies, which play an important role in controlling insect pests, or breaking down organic matter in the detritus cycle. The species Solidago altissima (Tall Goldenrod) is considered a variety of Canada Goldenrod by some authorities, while others (e.g., Mohlenbrock, 2002) treat it as a separate species. According to the latter authority, Tall Goldenrod has longer phyllaries (floral bracts) at the base of its flowerheads (exceeding 3 mm. in length), while Canada Goldenrod has shorter phyllaries (3 mm. or less). It has been reported that the foliage of Canada Goldenrod contains a volatile oil that chemically resembles the oil from pine needles. There is also some experimental evidence that this species inhibits the growth of maple seedlings, and probably other plants as well, by exuding phytotoxic chemicals through its roots. Return
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Description

This is a native perennial plant with a central stem that is 2-6' tall. Because of the wide distribution and the existence of several varieties, there is significant variability in the characteristics of local ecotypes. The alternate leaves are about 4-6" long and 1" wide, becoming slightly smaller towards the apex of the plant. They are lanceolate to broadly linear in shape, and usually have small teeth along the margins, otherwise the margins are smooth. The stems have lines of white hairs, while the undersides of the leaves are pubescent.  Several flowering stems emerge from the top of the plant in the form of a panicle bearing masses of tiny yellow flowers in compact heads. Each flowerhead is less than ¼" across. The flowerhead occur along the upper part of each flowering stem, and sometimes have a slight fragrance. The blooming period is from late summer to fall; individual plants typically remain in bloom about 3 weeks. The achenes are longitudinally ribbed, slightly hairy, and have small tufts of hair, which help to provide dispersion by wind. The root system is fibrous, producing creeping rhizomes that cause the plants to cluster, sometimes forming dense colonies. Cultivation
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Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Plains to High Altitude, Cultivated, Native of Temperate America"
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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Canada Goldenrod occurs in almost all of the counties in Illinois and is very common (see Distribution Map). Natural habitats include disturbed areas of moist to dry prairies, openings in both floodplain and upland forests, thickets, savannas, limestone glades, and gravel seeps. In more developed areas, it occurs in both cultivated and abandoned fields, vacant lots, power-line clearance areas, and along fences, roadsides, and railroads. Faunal Associations
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Tamil Nadu: All districts
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Canada goldenrod is widespread across North America. It occurs in
almost every state and throughout Canada [4,16,34,37].
  • 4. Cronquist, Arthur. 1955. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest: Part 5: Compositae. Seattle: University of Washington Press. 343 p. [716]
  • 16. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403]
  • 34. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 1971. Common weeds of the United States. New York: Dover Publications, Inc. 463 p. [2378]
  • 37. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]

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Regional Distribution in the Western United States

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This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

2 Cascade Mountains
4 Sierra Mountains
5 Columbia Plateau
6 Upper Basin and Range
7 Lower Basin and Range
8 Northern Rocky Mountains
9 Middle Rocky Mountains
10 Wyoming Basin
11 Southern Rocky Mountains
12 Colorado Plateau
13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont
14 Great Plains
15 Black Hills Uplift
16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands

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Occurrence in North America

AL AK AZ AR CA CO CT DE FL GA
ID IL IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA
MI MN MS MO MT NE NH NJ NY NC
ND OH OK OR PA RI SC SD TN TX
UT VT VA WA WV WI WY AB BC MB
NB NF NT NS ON PE PQ SK YT

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the term: achene

Canada goldenrod is an erect, rhizomatous perennial herb growing to
heights of about 6 feet (1.8 m) and forming large clonal colonies
[13,38,39]. Alternate leaves surround the central stem with the larger
leaves occurring on the lower stem. Flowers are borne on numerous small
flower heads. The fruit is an achene [30]. The rhizomes arise mostly
from the base of the aerial stems, and are usually 2 to 5 inches (5-12
cm) long [27,30,34].
  • 13. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 27. Richards, Mary S.; Landers, R. Q. 1973. Responses of species in Kalsow Prairie, Iowa, to an April fire. Proceedings Iowa Academy of Science. 80: 159-161. [19837]
  • 30. Schmid, B.; Miao, S. L.; Bazzaz, F. A. 1990. Effects of simulated root herbivory and fertilizer application on growth and biomass allocation in the clonal perennial Solidago canadensis. Oecologia. 84: 9-15. [25211]
  • 34. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 1971. Common weeds of the United States. New York: Dover Publications, Inc. 463 p. [2378]
  • 38. Werner, Patricia A.; Bradbury, Ian K.; Gross, Ronald S. 1980. The biology of Canadian weeds. 45. Solidago canadensis L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 60: 1393-1409. [20357]
  • 39. Whitson, Tom D., ed. 1987. Weeds and poisonous plants of Wyoming and Utah. Res. Rep. 116-USU. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, College of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service. 281 p. [2939]

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Description

Plants 30–150(–200) cm; rhizomes short to long creeping. Stems 1–20+, erect, glabrate proximally or sparsely strigoso-villous, becoming more densely so distal to mid stem. Leaves: basal 0; proximal to mid cauline usually withering by flowering, tapering to sessile bases, blades narrowly ovate-lanceolate, 50–190 × 5–30 mm, margins sharply serrate, 3-nerved, apices acuminate, abaxial faces glabrous or more commonly hairy along main nerves, adaxial glabrous or slightly scabrous; mid to distal similar, 30–50(–120) × 8–12 mm, largest near mid stem, reduced distally, margins usually serrate or serrulate (teeth 3–8), sometimes entire proximal to arrays. Heads (70–)150–1300+ , secund, in secund pyramidal-paniculiform arrays (obscurely so and club-shaped thyrsiform in small plants or shoots with small arrays), branches divergent and recurved, branches and peduncles hairy. Peduncles 3–3.4 mm, bracteoles 0–3, linear-triangular. Involucres narrowly campanulate, 1.7–2.5(–3) mm. Phyllaries in 3–4 series, strongly unequal, acute to obtuse; outer lanceolate, inner linear-lanceolate. Ray florets (5–)8–14(–18); laminae 0.5–1.5 × 0.15–0.3(–0.5) mm. Disc florets (2–)3–6(–8); corollas 2.2–2.8(–3) mm, lobes 0.4–0.8(–1) mm. Cypselae (narrowly obconic) 1–1.5 mm (ribbed), sparsely strigose; pappi 1.8–2.2 mm.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Shrub
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Synonym

Aster canadensis (Linnaeus) Kuntze
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Canada Goldenrod occurs in almost all of the counties in Illinois and is very common (see Distribution Map). Natural habitats include disturbed areas of moist to dry prairies, openings in both floodplain and upland forests, thickets, savannas, limestone glades, and gravel seeps. In more developed areas, it occurs in both cultivated and abandoned fields, vacant lots, power-line clearance areas, and along fences, roadsides, and railroads. Faunal Associations
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Habitat characteristics

Canada goldenrod occurs on abandoned farmlands, infrequently grazed
pastures, waste areas, and tallgrass prairies [38]. It is also found
along roadsides and fence lines, in dry open fields, and in open woods
or damp meadows that dry out every year [18]. It can tolerate a fairly
wide range of soil fertility and texture conditions, but is typically
found in fairly moist soils. It is not found on waterlogged sites and
is found only rarely on very dry sites [31,38].
  • 18. Knoop, Jeffrey D. 1986. Floristic and vegetational survey of the W. Pearl King Praire Grove, a prairie remnant in Madison County, Ohio. In: Clambey, Gary K.; Pemble, Richard H., eds. The prairie: past, present and future: Proceedings, 9th North American prairie conference; 1984 July 29 - August 1; Moorhead, MN. Fargo, ND: Tri-College University Center for Environmental Studies: 44-49. [3513]
  • 31. Sperka, Marie. 1973. Growing wildflowers: A gardener's guide. New York: Harper & Row. 277 p. [10578]
  • 38. Werner, Patricia A.; Bradbury, Ian K.; Gross, Ronald S. 1980. The biology of Canadian weeds. 45. Solidago canadensis L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 60: 1393-1409. [20357]

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Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the terms: codominant, fern, forb

Canada goldenrod is sometimes dominant or codominant in disturbed forest
understories [38]. It also may dominate or codominate Midwestern
prairies [11]. Canada goldenrod is named as an herbaceous layer
dominant in the following publication :

Subalpine forb community types of the Bridger-Teton National Forest,
Wyoming [14].

Common understory associates of Canada goldenrod include red clover
(Trifolium pratense), Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia),
Carolina nightshade (Solanum carolinense), Missouri goldenrod (Solidago
missouriensis), small white ladyslipper (Cypripedium candidum), sticky
geranium (Geranium viscosissimum), northern bedstraw (Galium boreale)
and bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) [6,9,16,36].
  • 6. Dziadyk, Bohdan; Clambey, Gary K. 1983. Floristic composition of plant communities in a western Minnesota tallgrass prairie. In: Kucera, Clair L., ed. Proceedings, 7th North American prairie conference; 1980 August 4-6; Springfield, MO. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri: 45-54. [3194]
  • 9. Gates, Frank C. 1930. Aspen association in northern lower Michigan. Botanical Gazette. 40(3): 233-259. [16933]
  • 11. Glenn-Lewin, David C. 1980. The individualistic nature of plant community development. Vegetatio. 43: 141-146. [7857]
  • 14. Gregory, Shari. 1983. Subalpine forb community types of the Bridger-Teton National Forest, Wyoming. Final Report. U.S. Forest Service Cooperative Education Agreement: Contract OM 40-8555-3-115. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region. 100 p. [1040]
  • 16. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403]
  • 36. Vankat, John L.; Carson, Walter P. 1991. Floristics of a chronosequence corresponding to old field-deciduous forest succession in sw Ohio. III. Post-disturbance vegetation. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 118(4): 385-391. [17754]
  • 38. Werner, Patricia A.; Bradbury, Ian K.; Gross, Ronald S. 1980. The biology of Canadian weeds. 45. Solidago canadensis L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 60: 1393-1409. [20357]

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Habitat: Cover Types

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This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

More info for the term: cover

Canada goldenrod occurs in most SAF Cover Types.

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Habitat: Plant Associations

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

Canada goldenrod occurs in most Kuchler Plant Associations.

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Habitat: Ecosystem

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This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

Canada goldenrod occurs in most ecosystems.

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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Canada Goldenrod in Illinois

Solidago canadensis (Canada Goldenrod)
(Bees collect pollen or suck nectar; flies mostly suck nectar, otherwise they feed on pollen; beetles feed on pollen or suck nectar; other insects suck nectar; observations are from Robertson, Graenicher, Reed, Petersen, Moure & Hurd, Hilty, Krombein et al., and Macior)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn cp fq (Rb, Pt, Gr, Re); Apidae (Bombini): Bombus affinis sn cp (Gr, Re), Bombus centralis sn cp (Gr), Bombus fervidus (Pt), Bombus fraternus sn, Bombus griseocallis sn fq (Rb, Re), Bombus impatiens sn cp fq (Rb, Re), Bombus pensylvanica sn fq, Bombus ternarius (Re), Bombus vagans sn cp (Rb, Gr, Re, Mc), Psithyrus citrinus (Re), Psithyrus variabilis sn (Rb, Gr); Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn cp (Rb, Gr); Anthophoridae (Epeolini): Epeolus autumnalis sn, Epeolus pusillus sn, Triepeolus pectoralis sn; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes boltoniae sn cp, Melissodes dentiventris sn cp, Melissodes illata (Re), Melissodes nivea sn cp (Rb, Gr), Melissodes rustica sn cp (Rb, Gr); Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada placida sn, Nomada vicina vicina sn (Rb, Gr); Anthophoridae (Xylocopini): Xylocopa virginicia sn cp (Gr); Megachilidae (Coelioxini): Coelioxys sayi sn; Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile centuncularis sn cp (Gr), Megachile mendica (Re), Megachile relativa (Re); Megachilidae (Osmiinae): Ashmeadiella bucconis sn cp; Megachilidae (Stelidini): Stelis foederalis sn (Gr), Stelis trypetinum sn fq; Megachilidae (Trypetini): Heriades carinatum sn cp (Gr), Heriades leavitti sn cp fq, Heriades variolosa variolosa sn

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Augochlorella striata sn (Gr, MH, Re), Augochloropsis metallica metallica sn, Halictus confusus sn cp (Rb, Gr), Halictus ligatus sn cp (Rb, Re), Halictus rubicunda sn cp (Rb, Gr), Lasioglossum spp. (Halictus spp.) sn (Re, Gr), Lasioglossum albipennis sn cp, Lasioglossum cinctipes sn cp (Gr), Lasioglossum connexus sn cp (Gr), Lasioglossum coriaceus sn cp, Lasioglossum forbesii sn cp, Lasioglossum foxii sn (Gr), Lasioglossum laevissimus (MH), Lasioglossum leucozonia (Re), Lasioglossum lineatulus (Re), Lasioglossum paraforbesii (Re), Lasioglossum pectoralis (Re), Lasioglossum pilosus (Re), Lasioglossum rohweri (Re), Lasioglossum versatus sn cp fq, Lasioglossum zephyrus sn (Gr); Halictidae (Sphecodini): Sphecodes sp. sn (Re), Sphecodes clematidis sn (Gr), Sphecodes cressonii sn fq (Rb, Gr), Sphecodes davisii sn (Gr), Sphecodes dichroa sn (Gr), Sphecodes heraclei heraclei sn, Sphecodes minor sn (Gr), Sphecodes prosphorus sn (Gr), Sphecodes smilacinae sn, Sphecodes stygius sn; Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes americanus sn cp fq, Colletes compactus sn cp, Colletes eulophi sn cp (Rb, Gr), Colletes simulans armata sn cp fq olg (Rb, Gr, Re); Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus affinis sn fq (Rb, Gr, Re), Hylaeus illinoisensis sn fq, Hylaeus mesillae sn fq (Rb, Gr, Re), Hylaeus modestus modestus sn cp fq (Rb, Gr); Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena asteris sn (Gr, Re), Andrena canadensis sn cp (Gr), Andrena helianthi (Kr), Andrena hirticincta sn cp olg (Gr, Re), Andrena nubecula sn cp fq olg (Rb, Gr, Re), Andrena peckhami cp (Gr), Andrena placata cp olg (Re), Andrena simplex sn cp fq icp olg (Rb, Gr, Re, Kr); Andrenidae (Panurginae): Calliopsis andreniformis sn (Gr, Kr), Calliopsis coloradensis sn cp fq icp, Heterosarus andrenoides sn cp fq icp, Heterosarus labrosiformis labrosiformis sn, Heterosarus parvus sn cp, Heterosarus solidaginis sn cp fq, Perdita octomaculatus sn cp fq icp

Wasps
Sphecidae (Bembicinae): Bicyrtes ventralis (Gr), Gorytes simillimus (Gr), Hoplisoides costalis (Gr), Pseudoplisus phaleratus, Stizoides renicinctus, Synnevrus aequalis (Gr); Sphecidae (Crabroninae): Anacrabro ocellatus (Rb, Gr) fq, Crabro tumidus, Ectemnius sp. (Re), Ectemnius continuus, Ectemnius decemmaculatus (Rb, Gr), Ectemnius dives (Gr), Ectemnius lapidarius (Rb, Gr, Re), Ectemnius maculosus (Rb, Gr, Re), Ectemnius trifasciatus (Gr), Lestica confluentus (Rb, Gr), Lestica producticollis (Gr), Lindenius columbianus, Oxybelus emarginatus fq, Oxybelus mexicanus fq, Oxybelus niger, Oxybelus uniglumis (Rb, Gr); Sphecidae (Larrinae): Ancistromma distincta fq, Larra analis (Gr), Lyroda subita (Gr), Tachysphex acuta, Tachysphex pompiliformis (Gr), Tachysphex tarsata (Gr), Tachytes aurulenta (Gr), Tachytes crassus (Re), Tachytes pepticus (Gr); Sphecidae (Pemphredoninae): Mimesa cressonii (Gr), Mimesa denticulata; Sphecidae (Philanthinae): Cerceris clypeata (Gr), Cerceris compacta, Cerceris deserta (Gr, Re), Cerceris finitima, Cerceris fumipennis (Gr), Cerceris kennicottii, Cerceris nigrescens (Gr, Re), Cerceris prominens, Eucerceris fulvipes fq, Eucerceris zonata fq, Philanthus bilunatus (Gr, Re), Philanthus gibbosus (Gr), Philanthus sanbornii (Gr); Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila kennedyi (Rb, Gr), Ammophila nigricans (Gr), Ammophila urnaria (Re), Isodontia apicalis, Isodontia philadelphica (Gr), Prionyx atrata, Prionyx thomae, Sceliphron caementaria, Sphex ichneumonea, Sphex pensylvanica; Vespidae: Dolichovespula arenaria (Gr), Polistes annularis fq, Polistes carolina, Polistes fuscata fq (Rb, Gr, Re), Vespula germanica, Vespula squamosa, Vespula vidua (Re); Vespidae (Eumeninae): Ancistrocerus adiabatus fq (Rb, Gr, Re), Ancistrocerus antilope (Rb, Gr, Re), Ancistrocerus campestris, Ancistrocerus catskill (Rb, Re), Eumenes crucifera (Re), Eumenes fraterna (Rb, Gr), Euodynerus annulatus, Euodynerus foraminatus (Rb, Re), Leionotus scrophulariae fq, Leionotus ziziae, Parancistrocerus pensylvanicus (Gr), Stenodynerus anormis, Zethus spinipes; Sapygidae: Sapyga interrupta; Tiphiidae: Myzinum maculata (Re), Myzinum quinquecincta (Rb, Gr, Re), Tiphia intermedia; Scoliidae: Scolia bicincta (Rb, Gr), Scolia nobilitata; Pompilidae: Ageniella agenioides, Anoplius aethiops (Gr), Anoplius illinoensis, Anoplius marginatus (Rb, Gr, Re), Anoplius nigritus, Ceropales bipunctata (Rb, Gr), Ceropales elegans, Ceropales fulvipes, Ceropales maculata (Rb, Gr), Entypus fulvicornis, Entypus unifasciatus (Gr), Episyron biguttatus fq (Rb, Gr, Re), Evagetes parvus, Poecilopompilus interrupta (Rb, Gr); Chrysididae: Hedychrum violaceum; Mutillidae: Pseudomethoca frigida (Gr); Leucospididae: Leucospis affinis fq (Rb, Gr); Perilampidae: Perilampus fulvicornis, Perilampus hyalinus (Gr), Perilampus robertsoni; Gasteruptiidae: Gasteruption tarsatorius (Rb, Gr); Ichneumonidae: Ceratogastra ornata (Rb, Gr, Re), Cratichneumon suadus (Gr), Cremastus hyalinipennis (Re), Cryptus albitarsis (Gr), Cryptus persimilis (Gr), Diadegma pattoni, Eutanyacra succinctus (Gr), Glyphicnemis mandibularis (Gr), Lissonota clypeator (Rb, Gr), Metopius pollinctorius, Trathala delicatus; Braconidae: Agathis perforator (Gr), Atanycolus simplex, Bracon mellitor, Chelonus sericeus (Rb, Gr), Meteorus areolatus fq, Rogas terminalis (Re), Vipio rugator fq

Flies
Stratiomyidae: Hedriodiscus binotata (Gr), Hedriodiscus trivittatus (Gr), Hedriodiscus vertebrata (Gr), Nemotelus glaber sn, Odontomyia cincta (Gr), Odontomyia virgo (Gr), Stratiomys badia (Gr), Stratiomys lativentris (Gr), Stratiomys normula (Gr); Syrphidae: Allograpta obliqua sn (Rb, Gr), Cheilosia punctulata sn, Epistrophe emarginata sn (Rb, Re), Eristalis anthophorina sn (Rb, Gr), Eristalis arbustorum (Gr), Eristalis dimidiatus sn fq (Rb, Gr, Re), Eristalis flavipes sn, Eristalis stipator sn (Rb, Re), Eristalis tenax sn (Rb, Gr, Re), Eristalis transversus (Gr, Re), Eupeodes americanus sn, Helophilus fasciatus sn fp fq (Rb, Gr, Re), Helophilus latifrons sn (Rb, Gr), Heringia salax (Gr), Mallota posticata (Gr), Milesia virginiensis sn, Ocyptamus fascipennis (Gr), Orthonevra nitida sn fp, Orthonevra pulchella (Gr), Palpada vinetorum (Gr), Paragus bicolor sn (Rb, Gr), Parhelophilus laetus (Gr), Platycheirus sp. (Re), Platycheirus hyperboreus sn, Platycheirus quadratus sn, Sphaerophoria contiqua (Gr), Spilomyia longicornis sn (Rb, Gr), Spilomyia sayi sn (Rb, Gr, Re), Syritta pipiens sn (Rb, Gr, Re), Syrphus ribesii (Gr), Toxomerus geminatus sn (Rb, Gr), Toxomerus marginatus (Gr, Re), Toxomerus politus sn fq, Tropidia mamillata sn fq; Agromyzidae: Cerodontha angulata (Gr); Empidae: Empis clausa sn; Milichiidae: Eusiphona mira (Gr); Bombyliidae: Exoprosopa decora sn, Exoprosopa fascipennis sn, Poecilanthrax halcyon (Gr), Sparnopolius confusus sn, Sparnopolius confusus (Gr), Toxophora amphitea sn, Villa alternata (Gr), Villa fulviana (Gr); Sciaridae: Sciara exigua (Gr); Conopidae: Physocephala texana sn (Rb, Gr), Physocephala tibialis sn, Physoconops brachyrhynchus sn, Physoconops sylvosus sn, Robertsonomyia palpalis sn, Thecophora occidensis sn (Rb, Gr); Tachinidae: Allophorocera occidentalis (Gr), Archytas analis (Gr), Belvosia bifasciata (Gr), Belvosia unifasciata sn, Cylindromyia binotata (Re), Cylindromyia carolinae (Gr), Cylindromyia dosiades (Gr), Cylindromyia euchenor sn, Estheria tibialis (Gr), Chaetogaedia analis (Gr), Eumia caesar (Gr), Exorista mella (Gr), Gnadochaeta clistoides sn, Gnadochaeta metallica sn, Gnadochaeta nigrifrons sn, Gymnochaeta alcedo (Gr), Gymnoclytia immaculata (Gr), Gymnoclytia occidua sn, Gymnosoma fulignosum sn (Rb, Gr), Leschenaultia leucophrys (Gr), Leucostoma simplex (Gr), Linnaemya comta (Gr), Lydina areos (Gr), Microphthalma disjuncta (Gr), Mochlosoma sp. (Gr), Mystacella chrysoprocta (Gr), Neaera robertsonii sn, Opsidia gonioides (Gr), Panzeria aldrichi (Gr), Periscepsia helymus (Gr), Periscepsia laevigata sn, Ptilodexia sp. (Re), Spallanzania hesperidarum (Gr), Strongygaster triangulifera (Gr), Tachinomyia panaetius (Gr), Trichopoda plumipes sn, Winthemia quadripustulata (Gr); Chloropidae: Meromyza americana (Gr); Sarcophagidae: Amobia aurifrons sn, Blaesoxipha hunteri sn, Erythrandra distincta sn, Helicobia rapax sn (Rb, Gr), Oebalia aristalis sn, Ravinia anxia sn, Sarcophaga sp. (Gr), Sarcophaga sarracenioides (Gr), Sphixapata trilineata sn (Rb, Gr); Calliphoridae: Bellardia sp. (Gr), Cochliomyia macellaria sn fq, Cynomya sp. (Gr), Lucilia illustris (Gr), Phormia regina (Gr); Muscidae: Graphomya americana sn, Graphomya maculata (Gr), Morellia micans sn (Rb, Gr), Neomyia cornicina sn fq, Phaonia sp. (Gr), Stomoxys calcitrans sn; Anthomyiidae: Anthomyia leucostoma (Gr), Calythea nigricans sn, Calythea pratincola (Gr), Delia platura (Gr), Phorbia sp. (Gr); Fanniidae: Fannia manicata sn; Tephritidae: Dioxyna picciola sn, Euraresta bella (Gr); Culicidae: Aedes vexans sn (Gr)

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Danaus plexippus (Rb, Gr), Phyciodes tharos (Gr), Vanessa cardui; Lycaenidae: Celastrina argiolus (Gr), Lycaena hyllus, Satyrium sp. (Gr), Satyrium calanus (Gr); Pieridae: Colias philodice

Moths
Arctiidae: Lycomorpha pholus (Gr); Ctenuchidae: Cisseps fulvicollis (Rb, Gr, H, Re); Noctuidae: Euxoa velleripennis, Feltia jaculifera, Helicoverpa zea fq, Mythimna unipuncta (Gr); Tortricidae: Grapholita interstinctana (Gr)

Beetles
Cantharidae: Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus sn fq; Carabidae: Calleida punctata fp; Cerambycidae: Megacyllene decorum fp, Megacyllene robiniae fp fq (Rb, Gr), Typocerus vulutina (Gr); Chrysomelidae: Acalymma vittata fp, Acanthoscelides obsoletus sn, Diabrotica longicornis fp fq, Diabrotica undecimpunctata fp fq (Rb, Gr); Cleridae: Trichodes apivorus (Gr); Coccinellidae: Coccinella novemnotata sn, Coleomegilla maculata fp, Hippodamia glacialis sn fq; Meloidae: Epicauta pensylvanica fp fq (Rb, Gr, H); Melyridae: Collops quadrimaculatus sn; Mordellidae: Mordella melaena (Gr), Mordellistena comata (Gr); Scarabaeidae (Cetoniidae): Euphoria sepulcralis fp, Trichiotinus piger (Gr)

Plant Bugs
Alydidae: Alydus pilosulus; Lygaeidae: Lygaeus turcicus (Rb, Gr); Miridae: Adelphocoris rapidus (Rb, Gr), Cimex ruficornis (Gr), Lygus lineolaris (Gr), Metriorrhynchomiris dislocatus (Gr), Plagiognathus sp. (Gr), Plagiognathus politus (Gr); Thyreocoridae: Corimelaena pulicarius (Gr);

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In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
Golovinomyces cichoracearum parasitises live Solidago canadensis

Foodplant / parasite
Golovinomyces orontii parasitises live Solidago canadensis

Foodplant / miner
larva of Nemorimyza posticata mines leaf of Solidago canadensis

Foodplant / saprobe
often 2-3 in a line pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis linearis is saprobic on dead, locally stained stem of Solidago canadensis
Remarks: season: 4

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General Ecology

Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire

More info for the terms: fire use, prescribed fire

The Research Project Summary Understory recovery after low- and high-intensity
fires in northern Idaho ponderosa pine forests
provides information on
prescribed fire use and postfire response of plant community species
including Canada goldenrod.

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Plant Response to Fire

More info for the terms: cover, density, frequency, prescribed fire, succession

Canada goldenrod responds positively following low- to moderate-severity
fires [23,27]. On a northwestern Minnesota prairie site, Canada
goldenrod showed increased flowering following a prescribed spring fire
[25]. In Wisconsin, prescribed fire had little effect on percent cover
of Canada goldenrod but accounted for an increase in stem density [15].

In a 53-year record of forest succession following fire in northern
lower Michigan, Canada goldenrod had its greatest frequency index 24
years after fire [28].

In a study of plant succession in the Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii)
brush zone after fire, Canada goldenrod showed a higher average number
of plants on burned areas than on unburned areas, even after 18
years [22].

In May and June, fires in wetland margins of southeastern North Dakota
were conducted for the purpose of increasing cover and forage for
waterfowl. In the summer after fires and the next year, Canada goldenrod
was either unchanged or reduced in cover as compared to control plots
[24].
  • 15. Halvorsen, Harvey H.; Anderson, Raymond K. 1983. Evaluation of grassland management for wildlife in central Wisconsin. In: Kucera, Clair L., ed. Proceedings, 7th North American prairie conference; 1980 August 4-6; Springfield, MO. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri: 267-279. [3228]
  • 22. McKell, Cyrus M. 1950. A study of plant succession in the oak brush (Quercus gambelii) zone after fire. Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah. 79 p. Thesis. [1608]
  • 23. Medve, Richard J. 1984. The mycorrhizae of pioneer species in disturbed ecosystems of western Pennsylvania. American Journal of Botany. 71(6): 787-794. [8544]
  • 24. Olson, Wendell W. 1975. Effects of controlled burning on grassland within the Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. Fargo, ND: North Dakota University of Agriculture and Applied Science. 137 p. Thesis. [15252]
  • 25. Pemble, R. H.; Van Amburg, G. L.; Mattson, Lyle. 1981. Intraspecific variation in flowering activity following a spring burn on a northwestern Minnesota prairie. In: Stuckey, Ronald L.; Reese, Karen J., eds. The prairie peninsula--in the "shadow" of Transeau: Proceedings, 6th North American prairie conference; 1978 August 12-17; Columbus, OH. Ohio Biological Survey: Biological Notes No. 15. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, College of Biological Sciences: 235-240. [3435]
  • 27. Richards, Mary S.; Landers, R. Q. 1973. Responses of species in Kalsow Prairie, Iowa, to an April fire. Proceedings Iowa Academy of Science. 80: 159-161. [19837]
  • 28. Scheiner, Samuel M.; Teeri, James A. 1981. A 53-year record of forest succession following fire in northern lower Michigan. Michigan Botanist. 20(1): 3-14. [5022]

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Immediate Effect of Fire

Fire top-kills all aerial portions of Canada goldenrod [12,25].
  • 12. Glenn-Lewin, David C.; Johnson, Louise A.; Jurik, Thomas W.; [and others]
  • 25. Pemble, R. H.; Van Amburg, G. L.; Mattson, Lyle. 1981. Intraspecific variation in flowering activity following a spring burn on a northwestern Minnesota prairie. In: Stuckey, Ronald L.; Reese, Karen J., eds. The prairie peninsula--in the "shadow" of Transeau: Proceedings, 6th North American prairie conference; 1978 August 12-17; Columbus, OH. Ohio Biological Survey: Biological Notes No. 15. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, College of Biological Sciences: 235-240. [3435]

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Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the terms: ground residual colonizer, rhizome

Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil
Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)

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Fire Ecology

Canada goldenrod is generally enhanced by fire. It regenerates after
fire from on-site soil-stored seed and underground rhizomes [25,40].
  • 25. Pemble, R. H.; Van Amburg, G. L.; Mattson, Lyle. 1981. Intraspecific variation in flowering activity following a spring burn on a northwestern Minnesota prairie. In: Stuckey, Ronald L.; Reese, Karen J., eds. The prairie peninsula--in the "shadow" of Transeau: Proceedings, 6th North American prairie conference; 1978 August 12-17; Columbus, OH. Ohio Biological Survey: Biological Notes No. 15. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, College of Biological Sciences: 235-240. [3435]
  • 40. Young, Richard P. 1986. Fire ecology and management in plant communities of Malheur National Wildlife Refuge. Portland, OR: Oregon State University. 169 p. Thesis. [3745]

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Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: shrubs

Obligate Initial Community Species

Canada goldenrod is fairly shade intolerant although it occurs in
sparsely wooded areas [38]. It is one of the first species to invade
following disturbances including fire [23]. Canada goldenrod is
eventually replaced by shrubs [32].
  • 23. Medve, Richard J. 1984. The mycorrhizae of pioneer species in disturbed ecosystems of western Pennsylvania. American Journal of Botany. 71(6): 787-794. [8544]
  • 32. Stallard, Harvey. 1929. Secondary succession in the climax forest formations of northern Minnesota. Ecology. 10(4): 476-547. [3808]
  • 38. Werner, Patricia A.; Bradbury, Ian K.; Gross, Ronald S. 1980. The biology of Canadian weeds. 45. Solidago canadensis L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 60: 1393-1409. [20357]

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Regeneration Processes

More info for the term: rhizome

Canada goldenrod reproduces from seed and from creeping rhizomes
[25,30]. The flowers are self-incompatible and are pollinated by
insects. The seed is wind dispersed, with most seeds falling within
6.5 feet (2.0 m) of the parent plant [38].

Vegetative reproduction: Canada goldenrod reproduces from rhizomes after
the first year of growth. One erect stem usually forms at a rhizome
node. Each rhizome can produce a single shoot from its apical tip
[2,38].
  • 2. Bell, A. D.; Tomlinson, P. B. 1980. Adaptive architecture in rhizomatous plants. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 80: 125-160. [11822]
  • 25. Pemble, R. H.; Van Amburg, G. L.; Mattson, Lyle. 1981. Intraspecific variation in flowering activity following a spring burn on a northwestern Minnesota prairie. In: Stuckey, Ronald L.; Reese, Karen J., eds. The prairie peninsula--in the "shadow" of Transeau: Proceedings, 6th North American prairie conference; 1978 August 12-17; Columbus, OH. Ohio Biological Survey: Biological Notes No. 15. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, College of Biological Sciences: 235-240. [3435]
  • 30. Schmid, B.; Miao, S. L.; Bazzaz, F. A. 1990. Effects of simulated root herbivory and fertilizer application on growth and biomass allocation in the clonal perennial Solidago canadensis. Oecologia. 84: 9-15. [25211]
  • 38. Werner, Patricia A.; Bradbury, Ian K.; Gross, Ronald S. 1980. The biology of Canadian weeds. 45. Solidago canadensis L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 60: 1393-1409. [20357]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: hemicryptophyte

Hemicryptophyte

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Life Form

More info for the term: forb

Forb

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

Canada goldenrod rhizomes are usually produced in late autumn and lie
dormant during the winter months. Shoot extension occurs the following
spring [38]. Canada goldenrod flowers from July through September,
although the length of its flowering season varies with geographic
location. Seeds are gradually dispersed during the autumn and winter
[3,20].
  • 3. Callow, J. Michael; Kantrud, Harold A.; Higgins, Kenneth F. 1992. First flowering dates and flowering periods of prairie plants at Woodworth, North Dakota. Prairie Naturalist. 24(2): 57-64. [20450]
  • 20. Kudish, Michael. 1992. Adirondack upland flora: an ecological perspective. Saranac, NY: The Chauncy Press. 320 p. [19376]
  • 38. Werner, Patricia A.; Bradbury, Ian K.; Gross, Ronald S. 1980. The biology of Canadian weeds. 45. Solidago canadensis L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 60: 1393-1409. [20357]

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Solidago canadensis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Solidago canadensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 9
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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© NatureServe

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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Management

Management considerations

Canada goldenrod is not a serious weed in annual crops, and it seldom
reaches densities that are a problem in rangelands. It does, however,
invade poorly managed pastures and can be a pest in forest nurseries,
perennial gardens, and crops [38,39].

Canada goldenrod has an allelopathic effect on sugar maple (Acer
saccharum) seedlings and reduces germination of herbaceous species,
including itself [38].

Response to herbicides: The response of Canada goldenrod to herbicides
is affected by population age. In Quebec, a young population which had
recently invaded a disturbed site was less susceptible to 2,4-D than an
old, established population. Conversely, susceptibility to paraquat,
simazine, and diuron declined with population age [38].
  • 38. Werner, Patricia A.; Bradbury, Ian K.; Gross, Ronald S. 1980. The biology of Canadian weeds. 45. Solidago canadensis L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 60: 1393-1409. [20357]
  • 39. Whitson, Tom D., ed. 1987. Weeds and poisonous plants of Wyoming and Utah. Res. Rep. 116-USU. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, College of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service. 281 p. [2939]

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These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Info Flora (CRSF/ZDSF) & Autoren 2005

Supplier: Name It's Source (profile not public)

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG

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Cover Value

More info for the term: cover

Canada goldenrod provides poor cover for elk, deer, pronghorn, and
upland game birds [5].
  • 5. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]

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Other uses and values

Canada goldenrod is an important source of nectar for honeybees [38].
Several shades of dye can be produced from Canada goldenrod [1].
  • 1. Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p. [3801]
  • 38. Werner, Patricia A.; Bradbury, Ian K.; Gross, Ronald S. 1980. The biology of Canadian weeds. 45. Solidago canadensis L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 60: 1393-1409. [20357]

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Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

White-tailed deer selectively graze Canada goldenrod, particularly in
late summer and autumn after inflorescence development [17,38].
  • 17. Irwin, Larry L. 1985. Foods of moose, Alces alces, and white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, on a burn in boreal forest. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 99(2): 240-245. [4513]
  • 38. Werner, Patricia A.; Bradbury, Ian K.; Gross, Ronald S. 1980. The biology of Canadian weeds. 45. Solidago canadensis L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 60: 1393-1409. [20357]

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Palatability

In Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming, Canada goldenrod
is rated good to fair in palatability for cattle, sheep, and horses [5].
  • 5. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]

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Wikipedia

Solidago canadensis

Solidago canadensis (Canada golden-rod, Canada goldenrod) is an herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae native to northeastern North America but established as an invasive plant in many other regions.[2] It is often grown as an ornamental in flower gardens

The plant is erect, often forming colonies. Flowers are small yellow heads held above the foliage on a branching inflorescence.

Ecology and distribution[edit]

S. canadensis is sometimes browsed by deer and is good to fair as food for domestic livestock such as cattle or horses.[3]

It occurs throughout North America, in most US states and Canadian provinces.[3] It is found in a variety of habitats, although it is not shade tolerant. It typically is one of the first plants to colonize an area after disturbance (such as fire) and rarely persists once shrubs and trees become established. It is found neither in very dry locations nor in waterlogged ones.[3]

Invasive species[edit]

In many parts of Europe, Japan and China, it is established as an invasive weed.

In eastern and southeastern China, particularly the provinces of Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Jiangxi and Shanghai, its invasion has reached pandemic levels and has caused widespread concern. It has been reported that the invasion of the Canada Golden-rod along with other invasive plants, has caused the extinction of 30 native plants in Shanghai.[4]{dead link} In the city of Ningbo, Zhejiang, it has reduced local orange harvests.[5] It is still spreading across China, and sightings have been reported in as far as Yunnan province. Various national and provincial authorities have been on high alert.

In Fukushima it has taken over the rice fields that have been temporarily abandoned because of the nuclear power plant disaster.

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Plant List, Solidago canadensis
  2. ^ Flora of North America, Solidago canadensis, vol 20
  3. ^ a b c "Solidago canadensis". Fire Effects Information System: species reviews of fire and other ecology. 1993. Retrieved 2009-08-24. 
  4. ^ Jiangsu's battle with Canada Goldenrod (Chinese)
  5. ^ Jiaodianfangtan (Chinese)
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Notes

Comments

Solidago canadensis is cultivated and introduced in more western states and in Europe. Very narrow limits for the species are followed here. Alternatively, the species has been defined broadly to include most other species of the subsection (e.g., A. Cronquist 1994).

Solidago ×bartramiana Fernald [S. canadensis var. bartramiana (Fernald) Beaudry] is considered to be a hybrid between S. canadensis and S. uliginosa. Its growth form and array are more like those of the latter.

Two sometimes difficult-to-distinguish varieties with greatly overlapping ranges are recognized.

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Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: This is the record for Solidago canadensis in the narrow sense. Kartesz (1999) redefines the Solidago canadensis concept to exclude Solidago altissima (= Solidago canadensis var. scabra).

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More info for the term: fern

The currently accepted scientific name for Canada goldenrod is Solidago
canadensis L. [10]. Five varieties are recognized [10]:

S. c. var. canadensis L.
S. c. var. gilvocanescens Rydb.
S. c, var. salebrosa (Piper) M. E. Jones
S. c. var. scarbra T. & G.
S. c. var. hargeri Fern.

Taxonomy within the genus Solidago is complicated due to great
intraspecific variation and geographic clines in characteristics [38].
  • 10. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 38. Werner, Patricia A.; Bradbury, Ian K.; Gross, Ronald S. 1980. The biology of Canadian weeds. 45. Solidago canadensis L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 60: 1393-1409. [20357]

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Common Names

Canada goldenrod

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