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Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Xinjiang [Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; SW Asia, Europe, North America].
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Herbs perennial, rhizomatous. Stems erect, 35-40 cm tall, slightly grooved, glabrous except for sparsely retrorse pubescent angles, leafless basally, much branched upward. Petiole 2-7 mm; leaf blade oblong-lanceolate, 1.5-6 × 0.8-3 cm, larger basally, membranous to papery, pubescent, base shallowly cordate, margin crenate-serrate, apex acute. Flowers axillary on apical part of stem, secund; pedicel ca. 2 mm, densely retrorse pubescent. Calyx ca. 3.5 mm, densely white pubescent outside, to 5 mm in fruit; scutellum ca. 0.8 mm, erect, to 1.5 mm in fruit. Corolla purple to blue, ca. 1.8 cm, glandular pubescent outside, lips partly puberulent; tube base slightly saccate, throat 3.5-5 mm wide; upper lip semicircular, ca. 2.5 mm wide; middle lobe of lower lip triangular-ovate, apex emarginate; lateral lobes oblong, ca. 1.5 mm wide. Nutlets yellow, triquetrous, ovoid, ca. 1 mm in diam., tuberculate, adaxially umbonate at middle. Fl. Jun-Jul, fr. Jul-Aug.
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Ecology

Habitat

Alluvial soils; 400-1100 m.
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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Marsh Skullcap in Illinois

Scutellaria galericulata (Marsh Skullcap)
(also known as Scutellaria epilobifolia; the butterfly sucks nectar; information is limited; this observation is from Grundel & Pavlovic)

Butterflies
Lycaenidae: Lycaeides melissa samuelis

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Foodplant / open feeder
gregarious larva of Athalia scutellariae grazes on leaf (underside) of Scutellaria galericulata

Foodplant / open feeder
imago of Phyllobrotica quadrimaculata grazes on leaf of Scutellaria galericulata

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous, covered, light brown pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Septoria scutellariae causes spots on live leaf of Scutellaria galericulata
Remarks: season: 8

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Scutellaria galericulata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Scutellaria galericulata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 12
Specimens with Barcodes: 19
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Scutellaria galericulata

Common skullcap, Scutellaria galericulata, also known as marsh skullcap or hooded skullcap, is a hardy perennial herb native to northern areas of the Northern Hemisphere, including Europe, Asia, and much of North America. It is a member of the mint family. The form is upright and is usually 20 to 45 centimeters in height,[1][2] sometimes reaching up to 80.[3] It is a wetland-loving species and grows along fens and shorelines. The blue flowers are 1 to 2 centimeters long. The flowers are in pairs and are all on the same side of the stem. The flowers do not appear at the top of the stem.

The plant is native to many parts of the world and, as such, is known by a variety of names. The Latin galericulata means "hooded", relating to the length of the flower's tube being much longer than the calyx.[1] The variation epilobiifolia translates as leaves like willow-herb, and refers to the slightly serrated long thin leaves which look similar to those of the genus Epilobium.

Medicinal uses[edit]

Scutellaria as a genus has numerous medicinal uses and various species of skullcap are used in the same way. The traditional uses of Common Skullcap should not be confused with those of other Skullcaps as there are over 200 different species of Skullcap and they are not all used in the same way. Blue Skullcap (S. lateriflora) is accepted as the "skullcap" used in traditional North American medicine, however Common Skullcap shares many of the same active chemicals and is used as a substitute in Britain and Europe.[4] Common skullcap (S. galericulata) is also often used in the same way as Western Skullcap (S. canescens) and Southern Skullcap (S. cordifolia), all of which are genetically similar.[5]

Blue Skullcap and Common Skullcap are mainly known for their traditional use as mild anxiolytics in the form of herbal teas, tablets, capsules, dried leaf for smoking and oral liquid preparations, often in combination with other medicinal herbs.[citation needed] The aqueous extract of the flowering parts have been traditionally used by Native Americans as a nerve tonic and for its sedative and diuretic properties.[6]

Pharmacology[edit]

Main chemical constituents
ChemicalPartConcentration (mg/g)
baicalinLeaf10[7]
chrysin-7-glucuronidePlant27[7]
tanninPlant28-35[8]

It is used in skin lightening.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b http://www.plant-identification.co.uk/skye/labiatae/scutellaria-galericulata.htm
  2. ^ http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Scutellaria+galericulata
  3. ^ Jepson Manual Treatment
  4. ^ R. B. H. Wills, D.L. Stuart, Generation of High Quality Australian Skullcap Products, 2004, ISBN 0-642-58730-2, ISSN: 1440-6845 http://www.rirdc.gov.au/reports/EOI/04-020.pdf
  5. ^ P. Wolfson, MD, and D. L. Hoffmann, FNIMH, Alternative Therapies, Mar/Apr 2003, Vol. 9, No. 2 75.
  6. ^ Millspaugh, C. F. American Medicinal Plants; Dover Publications: New York, 1974; pp 469-472
  7. ^ a b P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
  8. ^ Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
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