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Overview

Comprehensive Description

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Creeping Bellflower has very showy flowers. Among the Eurasian bellflowers that are cultivated, this is the species that most often escapes — in part because it is more commonly cultivated. A species that has naturalized less often in Illinois, Campanula glomerata (Clustered Bellflower), has more erect flowers that are clustered together at the apex each central stem. The flowers of this species have sepals that are longer and wider than those of Creeping Bellflower. The circumboreal Campanula rotundifolia (Harebells) and native Campanulastrum americanum (American Bellflower) are quite distinct from Creeping Bellflower. Harebells has linear leaves along its stems and its bell-shaped flowers are smaller in size (usually less than 1" in length) than those of creeping Bellflower. The flowers of American Bellflower have shallow corollas that are star-shaped with widely spreading lobes; the older scientific name of this latter species is Campanula americana.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Description

This introduced perennial plant is 1½–3' tall and little branched. The central stem is light green to reddish brown, glabrous to slightly hairy, and terete or angular. The alternate leaves are up to 5" long, 2" across, and variable in shape; the lowest leaves are often cordate-oval, while the middle and upper leaves are ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate. All of these leaves have crenate or serrated margins; their upper surfaces are medium to dark green, while their lower surfaces are light green and short-hairy along the veins. The lower and middle leaves have slender petioles, while the upper leaves are more likely to be sessile. Sometimes short leafy stalks develop from the axils of the leaves on the central stem.  The central stem terminates in an elongated raceme of flowers up to 1' long. The flowers tend to nod downward along one side of the raceme on short pedicels. At the base of each pedicel, there is a small leafy bract that is linear-lanceolate in shape. Sometimes nodding flowers are produced from the axils of the upper leaves on longer pedicels. Each flower has a bell-shaped blue-violet corolla, 5 green sepals, 5 stamens, and an exerted style with 3 curled stigmas. The corolla is 1–1½" long and half as much across; it has 5 pointed lobes that are recurved. The sepals are linear-lanceolate in shape, widely spreading to recurved, and much smaller in size than the corolla. The style is white or pale purple. The blooming period occurs from mid-summer to early fall and lasts about a month. Each flower is replaced by a globoid seed capsule that contains several small seeds. The root system is rhizomatous. Occasionally, small colonies of plants are produced from the long rhizomes.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, Cultivated, Native of Mediterranean Region"
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© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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© NatureServe

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Tamil Nadu: Dindigul
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Herb
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Ecology

Associations

Faunal Associations

According to Müller (1873/1883), the flowers of Creeping Bellflower produce both nectar and pollen. Müller observed honeybees, bumblebees, Halictid bees, and other bees visiting the flowers for nectar or pollen in Germany; he also observed a Syrphid fly with a long proboscis (Rhingia sp.) sucking nectar from the flowers. Aside from these observations, further information about floral-faunal relationships for this species are unavailable. Photographic Location
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / saprobe
scattered, brownish, covered then erumpent pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta carpathica is saprobic on dead peduncle of Campanula rapunculoides
Remarks: season: 10-3

Foodplant / parasite
telium of Coleosporium tussilaginis parasitises live Campanula rapunculoides

Foodplant / parasite
apothecium of Leptotrochila radians parasitises Campanula rapunculoides

Foodplant / parasite
Leveillula taurica parasitises Campanula rapunculoides

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered or several together pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis minuscula is saprobic on capsule of Campanula rapunculoides
Remarks: season: 1-3

Foodplant / spot causer
mainly hypophyllous colony of Ramularia hyphomycetous anamorph of Ramularia macrospora causes spots on live leaf of Campanula rapunculoides

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Campanula rapunculoides

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Campanula rapunculoides

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 17
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full to partial sun, more or less mesic conditions, and a fertile loamy soil. Range & Habitat
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Wikipedia

Campanula rapunculoides

Campanula rapunculoides, known by the common names creeping bellflower or rampion bellflower, is a perennial herbaceous plant of the genus Campanula, belonging to the family Campanulaceae.

Contents

Etymology

The genus Latin name (“campanula”), meaning small bell, refers to the bell-shape of the flower, while the specific name (“rapunculoides”) refers to the similarity to Campanula rapunculus.

Description

Close-up on flowers of Campanula rapunculoides

Campanula rapunculoides reaches on average 30–80 centimetres (12–31 in) of height, with a maximum of 120 centimetres (47 in). The stem is simple, erect and lightly pubescent and the leaves are usually shortly hairy. The basal leaves are triangular, narrow, with a heart-shaped or rounded base, jagged edges and are up to 12 centimetres (4.7 in) long. The upper stem leaves are sessile, lanceolate and shortly stalked.

The inflorescence consists of nodding spikelike racemes with numerous drooping flowers. The flowers are bright blue-violet (rarely white), 2 to 4 cm long, with short petioles standing to one side in the axils of the bracts. The bracts are quite different and smaller than the leaves. The sepals are lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, entire, wide at the base up to 2.5 mm. The corolla is bell-shaped, with five deep lobes slightly ciliate. The flowering period extends from June through September. The flowers are pollinated by insects (bees, flies, butterflies, etc.) (entomophily). The fruit is a capsule with five pores near the base, where the seeds are spread.

This plant has its overwintering buds situated just below the soil surface (hemicryptophyte). It spreads by underground rhizomes and produces deep, taproot-shaped tubers. Both are white and fleshy. Because any piece of the roots can sprout into a new plant, it is extremely hard to eradicate.

Distribution

This plant is native to Europe and western Siberia and it has been introduced to North America, where it has become an invasive weed.

Habitat

It grows on grassy places, dry hills, meadows, in deciduous and pine forests, woods, fields and roadsides, along railway lines and hedgerows, preferably in partial shade, in dry to moist sites and on clay soils, relatively rich in nitrogen, at an altitude of 0–2,000 metres (0–6,600 ft) above sea level. It also occurs in cultivated fields as a weed.

Gallery

References

  1. ^ a b Campanula rapunculoides was first described and published in Species Plantarum 165 1753. "TPL, treatment of Campanula rapunculoides L.". The Plant List; Version 1. (published on the internet). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden. 2010. http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl/record/kew-365789. Retrieved March 14, 2013.
  • Pignatti S. - Flora d'Italia – Edagricole – 1982, Vol. II, pag. 695
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