Overview

Distribution

On the rocky slopes around Callejón de Huaylas along the Río Santa in the Department of Ancash, Peru and in the adjacent Río Fortaleza drainage; 1700-3000 m.

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Formal Description

Habit

Sprawling perennial herbs, woody at the base, to 1 m tall, to 1 m in diameter. Stem 7-10 mm in diameter at base, green, minutely puberulent with simple, uniseriate, stiff 1-2-celled trichomes from a unicellular base, mixed with scattered simple uniseriate glandular trichomes with 4-celled heads, glabrescent in age, all trichomes less than 0.5 mm long.

Sympodial Structure

Sympodial units 2-foliate (rarely 3-foliate); internodes 2-6 cm long.

Leaves

Leaves interrupted imparipinnate, 3.5-13 (-16) cm long, 1-6 (-8) cm wide, bright green, minutely pubescent with stiff simple uniseriate trichomes like those of the stems, pubescence more abundant abaxially, especially along the veins; primary leaflets 3-7 pairs, gradually becoming smaller towards the base of the leaf, subopposite to alternate, narrowly elliptic, the base truncate, more or less oblique basiscopically, the margins deeply and irregularly lobed to occasionally almost entire in some leaflets, the apex acute to acuminate; terminal leaflet 1.2-2.5 cm long, 0.4-1.5 cm wide, the petiolule 0.2-0.5 (-1) cm long, the apex acute to acuminate; lateral leaflets 0.7-2.5 cm long, 0.3-1.2 cm wide, the petiolule 0-0.5 (1) cm long, usually decurrent on the rachis basiscopically; secondary leaflets occasionally present in some leaflets, especially acroscopically, 0.3-0.5 cm long, 0.25-0.4 cm wide, sessile and decurrent on the leaflet rachis; tertiary leaflets absent; interjected leaflets (0-) 3-12 (-20), 0.2-0.5 cm long, 0.1-0.4 cm wide, sessile and decurrent on the main leaf rachis, often 2 sets of unpaired interjected leaflets between each set of primary lateral leaflets; petiole 1-4 (-6) cm long; pseudostipules present or absent, if present then present on most nodes, 0.3-0.4 cm long, 0.2-0.3 cm wide.

Inflorescences

Inflorescences (6-) 12-30 cm long, once branched, usually regularly bifurcate, with 8-30 flowers, ebracteate or bracteate on most nodes from the base, the bracts 0.2-0.6 cm long, 0.1-0.4 cm wide, the largest bract at the bifurcation and first nodes, peduncle 5-15 cm long, minutely pubescent like the stems, with more prominent and numerous glandular trichomes especially at the apex. Pedicels 0.8-1.6 cm long, articulated in the distal half. Buds 1-1.2 cm long, 0.4-0.5 cm wide, narrowly conical, straight or curved at the very tip, with the corolla more than half exserted from the calyx just before anthesis.

Flowers

Flowers with the calyx tube minute, ca. 0.05-0.1 cm long, the sinuses often hyaline, the calyx lobes 0.25-0.5 cm long, 0.1-0.15 cm wide, lanceolate or in some populations (Río Fortaleza) the tips rounded, minutely pubescent like the rest of the inflorescence with short, simple uniseriate 1-2-celled white trichomes; corolla 1.8-2.5 cm in diameter, stellate, yellow, the tube 0.2-0.5 cm long, the lobes 1-1.5 cm long, 0.3-0.7 cm wide, uniformly and sparsely pubescent abaxially with 1-celled uniseriate trichomes, these not more abundant along the midveins, the lobe tips elongate and acuminate, reflexed at anthesis; staminal column 1-1.2 cm long, straight or curved, the filaments less than 0.5 mm long, the anthers 0.4-0.6 cm long, the sterile apical appendage 0.15-0.4 cm long; ovary conical to globose, minutely and sparsely pubescent with simple trichomes at the apex; style 0.8-1.2 cm long, ca. 0.5 mm in diameter, sparsely pubescent in the basal half, exserted 0.5-1.7 mm from the staminal column; stigma capitate, green.

Fruits

Fruit 1-1.4 cm in diameter, globose, 2-locular, green with a dark green or purple stripe from the apex to the base at fruit maturity, sparsely pubescent with weak-walled simple uniseriate trichomes to 0.5 mm long and occasionally also with minute glandular trichomes with 4-celled heads; fruiting pedicels 1-2 cm long, straight or slightly incurved towards the inflorescence axis; calyx lobes in fruit 1.1-1.6 cm long, 0.15-0.2 cm wide, spreading in some populations (Fortaleza) the lobe tips recurved.

Seeds

Seeds 2.4-3 mm long, 1.1-1.5 mm wide, 0.5-0.6 mm thick, obovate, pale brown, pubescent with hair-like outgrowths of the lateral testa cell walls, which give a silky appearance to the surface, narrowly winged at the apex and acute at the base.

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Type Information

Isotype for Solanum huaylasense Peralta & S. Knapp
Catalog Number: US 2591186A
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Status verified from secondary sources
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. C. Smith & J. Blas
Year Collected: 1970
Locality: Callejon de Huaylas, Dept. Ancash. Trail to cave across Rio Santa from Mancos., Ancash, Peru, South America
  • Isotype: Peralta, I. & Knapp, S. 2005. Syst. Bot. 30: 431.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

Solanum huaylasense flowers from March to May, and fruiting material has been collected from May to August.

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Evolution and Systematics

Systematics or Phylogenetics

Phylogeny

Solanum huaylasense is a member of the Potato clade (sensu Weese & Bohs, 2007); within the tomatoes and wild relatives it is a member of the “Eriopersicon group” and is a member of section Lycopersicon.

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Wikipedia

Solanum huaylasense

Solanum huaylasense is a species of plant (wild tomato) in the Solanaceae family. It is endemic to Peru.[1]

Description[edit source | edit]

It is a sprawling perennial herb, woody at the base, the herb being up to 1 metre (3.3 ft) or more in diameter and up to 1m tall. Its stem diameter ranges between 7 and 10 millimetres (0.28 and 0.39 in) at the base, not hollow in age, green, minutely puberulent with simple, uniseriate, stiff 1–2-celled trichomes. Sympodial units are 2-foliate (sometimes 3-foliate); internodes between 2 and 6 centimetres (0.79 and 2.4 in). Its leaves are interrupted imparipinnate, bright green, minutely pubescent with stiff simple uniseriate trichomes like those of the stems.

The petiole is between 1 and 4 centimetres (0.39 and 1.6 in); pseudostipules present or absent, if present then present on most nodes. Inflorescences range between 12 and 30 centimetres (4.7 and 12 in) in size, with 8–30 flowers, ebracteate or bracteate on most nodes from the base. Peduncle is between 5 and 15 centimetres (2.0 and 5.9 in); pedicels are between 0.8 and 1.6 centimetres (0.31 and 0.63 in), articulated in the upper half. Flowers with the calyx tube are minute, approximately between 0.5 and 1 millimetre (0.020 and 0.039 in). Fruit is between 1 and 1.4 centimetres (0.39 and 0.55 in) in diameter, globose and green when ripe. Seeds are obovate, narrowly winged at the apex and acute at the base, pale brown, pubescent with hair-like outgrowths of the tegument cell radial walls, which give the surface a silky appearance. Chromosome number: n=12 .

Distribution[edit source | edit]

On rocky slopes in the Department of Ancash, Peru at an altitude between 940 and 3,000 metres (3,080 and 9,800 ft).

References[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ Peralta, Iris E.; Knapp, Sandra; Spooner, David M. (2005). "New Species of Wild Tomatoes (Solanum Section Lycopersicon: Solanaceae) from Northern Peru". Systematic Botany 30 (2): 424–434. doi:10.1600/0363644054223657. ISSN 03636445. 

Further reading[edit source | edit]

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

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References and More Information

Commentary

Solanum huaylasense is a member of a clade containing S. chilense, S. corneliomulleri, and S. peruvianum s.str. (+ in some analyses S. habrochaites). It is most similar to S. chilense, from which it differs in its less pubescent (green) leaves and slightly smaller flowers. The two species share the elongate peduncle and bifid inflorescence. Populations from Río Fortaleza (high up in the Callejón de Huaylas) are slightly more pubescent than the others, and have curved buds and recurved calyx lobe tips in fruit. Solanum huaylasense grows in rocky cliff faces near the type locality (B. León, pers. comm.) and is generally a straggling, lanky plant in the wild. Solanum huaylasense was previously considered part of the broadly defined S. peruvianum s.l. The table lists all the TGRC accessions (LA numbers) previously included in Rick’s broad definition of S. peruvianum with their current identification.

Solanum huaylasense is a priority for conservation due to its narrow range, the paucity of collections and lack of knowledge about population status.

Cultivated specimens of Solanum huaylasense are robust and erect plants during initial growth and later decumbent, with highly dissected leaves, very long peduncles, inflorescences typically two-branched but often three-branched. Stems, internodes, leaves, inflorescences, flowers, and fruits are usually larger in cultivation than in the wild, but maintain similar character proportions to those collected in the wild.

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