Overview

Distribution

Middle to higher elevations on the western slope of the Andes from central (near Lima) to southern Peru; occasionally on lower slopes on the edges of landslides (huaycos) towards the southern part of the species range; (400-) 1000-3000 m.

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Formal Description

Habit

Spreading, erect to decumbent perennial herbs, woody at the base, to 1 mm tall and to 1 m in diameter. Stems 7-12 mm in diameter at base, green, densely velvety pubescent with a mixture of simple uniseriate trichomes, the largest stout, patent 5-9-celled trichomes 1.5-2 mm long from unicellular or multicellular bases, either eglandular or tipped with tiny 1-celled glands or occasionally 4-celled glandular heads, the abundance and density of these patent trichomes extremely variable, shorter more slender trichomes to 0.5 mm long, sparser and mixed with a variety of small glandular trichomes, the most common 1-2-celled with a 4-celled glandular head, in more glandular populations the head occasionally elliptical and 8-celled, 1-celled trichomes with tiny 1-celled glandular heads also present, but scattered amongst the more common, larger, glandular trichomes.

Sympodial Structure

Sympodial units 2-foliate; internodes 2-9 cm long.

Leaves

Leaves interrupted imparipinnate, (2-) 3.5-13 cm long, (1) 1.5-6.5 cm wide, green, densely pubescent like the stems, more glandular trichomes present, adaxially densely glandular pubescent with stout patent trichomes to 1 mm long, along the rachis and midveins, abaxially more densely velvety pubescent, the stout trichomes more abundant along the veins, but also on the lamina, in general lamina trichomes shorter than those of the veins or the stems; primary leaflets 3-5 pairs, the basal pair usually half the size of the rest, orbicular to broadly elliptic, elliptic in populations from around Arequipa, the base cordate to truncate, somewhat oblique and decurrent onto the rachis, the margins crenate to dentate to irregularly lobed ca. halfway to the rachis or more, the lobing deeper near the leaflet base, the apex rounded or acute; terminal leaflet usually larger than the lateral leaflets (0.4-) 1-3.5 cm long, (0.1-) 0.7-2 cm wide, the petiolule 0.05-1 cm long, the apex usually more acuminate than that of the lateral leaflets; lateral leaflets (0.2-) 0.7-3 cm long, (0.1-) 0.7-2 cm wide, the petiolule to 1 cm long, or absent and the leaflets sessile and decurrent onto the rachis; secondary leaflets sometimes present on the larger lateral leaflets and on the terminal leaflet, (0.04-) 0.1-0.3 cm long, (0.02-) 0.1-0.3 cm wide, broadly decurrent on the leaflet rachis, more developed acroscopically; tertiary leaflets absent; interjected leaflets (0-) 5-10, usually 2-4 between each primary leaflet, 0.1-0.6 cm long, 0.1-0.5 cm wide, sessile, occasionally with a short petiolule to 0.3 cm long; petiole 0.2-1 (-2) cm long; pseudostipules present but not developed at all nodes, 0.4-1 cm long, 0.5-1 cm wide, the margins crenate, glandular pubescent like the leaves.

Inflorescences

. Inflorescences 4-12 cm long, simple or more often once branched and bifurcate, with (5-) 8-16 flowers, usually bracteate, the bracts 0.3-0.5 cm long, 0.3-0.5 cm wide, the margins rounded crenate, peduncle 2.1-8 (-12) cm long, densely pubescent like the stems with a mixture of glandular and eglandular trichomes. Pedicels 0.7-1.5 cm long, articulated at the middle or in the distal half, often more densely pubescent with patent trichomes distal to the articulation. Buds 0.8-1.2 cm long, 0.4-0.6 cm wide, conical, strongly curved, with the corolla more than halfway exserted from the calyx just before anthesis.

Flowers

Flowers with the calyx tube minute, to 0.05 cm long, the lobes 0.3-0.6 cm long, 0.07-0.15 cm wide, lanceolate to narrowly deltate, the sinuses hyaline, densely pubescent with simple trichomes like those of the inflorescence to 0.5 mm long; corolla 1.5-2.4 (-3.2) cm in diameter, rotate-stellate, vivid yellow, the tube 0.3-0.8 cm long, the lobes 0.6-0.9 (-1.2) cm long, 0.6-09 cm wide, abaxially sparsely pubescent with white uniseriate trichomes to 0.5 mm long, these more abundant along the margins, the tips densely papillate-pubescent, reflexed at anthesis and the margins irregularly undulate; staminal column 0.7-1 cm long, 0.3-0.4 cm wide, strongly curved, the filaments 0.5 mm long, not forming a united tube, the anthers 0.45-0.6 cm long, the upper two usually larger and curved, the sterile apical appendage 0.25-0.4 cm long, often greenish; ovary globose, glabrous or with a few slender uniseriate trichomes at the apex; style 1.1-1.3 cm long, ca. 0.5 mm in diameter, curved, densely white pubescent 1/2 to 3/4 of its length, exserted 1-2.5 mm from the staminal column; stigma capitate, green.

Fruits

Fruit 0.9-1.3 cm in diameter, globose, 2-locular, green to greenish white with a dark green or purple stripe from the apex to the base and sometimes flushed with purple when ripe, sparsely to densely pubescent with a mixture of simple uniseriate trichomes, stout patent, 2-4-celled trichomes 1.5-2 mm long, eglandular or with 1-celled glandular heads, mixed with sparse to dense glandular 1-celled trichomes with 4-celled heads, the berries sometimes glabrescent when ripe, the trichomes apparently deciduous; fruiting pedicels 1.5-2.1 cm long, usually straight, occasionally somewhat angled towards the inflorescence axis at the articulation; calyx lobes in fruit 0.9-1.7 cm long, 0.15-0.2 cm wide, investing the fruit like a cage, usually as long as or longer than the berry, in populations from near Arequipa always longer than the berry.

Seeds

Seeds 1.7-3.0 mm long, 1.2-1.6 mm wide, 0.5-0.8 mm thick, obovate, dark brown, pubescent with hair-like outgrowths of the lateral testa cell walls, these adpressed and giving a silky appearance to the surface or sometimes shaggy, narrowly winged (0.2 mm) at the apex and acute at the base.

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Type Information

Holotype; Holotype for Lycopersicon glandulosum C.H. Mull.
Catalog Number: US 2249637
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): H. Blood & L. Tremelling
Year Collected: 1937
Locality: Between Yangos and Cantas, near Lima., Lima, Peru, South America
Elevation (m): 1707
  • Holotype: Muller, C. H. 1940. U.S.D.A. Bur. Pl. Industr. Misc. Publ. 382: 23.; Holotype: Macbride, J. F. 1962. Fieldiana, Bot. 13 (5B/1): 160.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

Solanum corneliomulleri flowers and fruits sporadically throughout the year, but there is a distinct flowering peak in March to April.

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Evolution and Systematics

Systematics or Phylogenetics

Phylogeny

Solanum corneliomulleri is a member of the Potato clade (sensu Weese & Bohs, 2007); within the tomatoes and wild relatives it is a member of the “Eriopersicon group” and is a member of section Lycopersicon.

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References and More Information

Commentary

Solanum corneliomulleri is a very distinctive species, with its strongly curved anther tube and copious glandular pubescence interspersed with very long uniseriate trichomes that are usually gland-tipped. Rick (1986a) included it in his broadly defined S. peruvianum (as Lycopersicon peruvianum), based on its ability to interbreed with S. peruvianum s.s. and S. arcanum as defined here. The table lists all the TGRC accessions (LA numbers) previously included in Rick’s broad definition of S. peruvianum with their current identification according to this monograph. Populations of S. corneliomulleri from the region of Volcán Misti (Yura and Tingo) in the Department of Arequipa (e.g. Schmidt s.n., F) are distinct in having narrower leaflets, shorter pubescence and extremely long calyx lobes in fruit that enclose the berry like a cage.

Our AFLP analyses (Spooner et al. 2005) suggest that S. corneliomulleri and S. peruvianum are hybridizing in the southern part of Peru, especially in the coastal parts of the Department of Arequipa. The two taxa do not form two monophyletic clades in the AFLP analysis although morphologically easily distinguishable which suggests genetic exchange in this region. This genetic mixing is perhaps due to the migration of people and animals from the Peruvian highlands to the coast during the wetter parts of the year, when highland farmers bring animals to the lomas for grazing which may potentially disperse the fruits and seeds (B. León, personal communication). This practice is especially common in the wet valleys of Pisco (Dept. Ica) and Nazca (Dept. Nazca) where cultivation of crops is extensive and adventive seeds may become established.

A single specimen of S. corneliomulleri from Puerto Pizarro, Department of Tumbes (Cerrate 4956, USM) is anomalous in being very far north from the rest of the species range and right on the coast. This specimen is a good match for others collected in populations near Matucana (Department of Lima, ca. 1500 m elevation) region and we suspect it is mislabeled. Solanum corneliomulleri has never been collected north of Lima and we have seen no other specimens approaching this morphology from the Department of Tumbes.

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