Overview

Distribution

Solanum bullatum occurs along the southern Brazilian coastal plain, in the highlands of the Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra do Mar ranges and upper drainage basin of the Rio Paraná, Solanum bullatum is a plant of forest margins and thickets from 300 to 1000 m. In semi-desert vegetation it is associated with Araucaria sp.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Formal Description

Habit

Shrubs or small trees, to 4 m tall, unarmed. Trunks to 12 cm in diameter; bark of older stems pale brown; young branches strongly sulcate, grayish to reddish, softly tomentose-pubescent, the indument persistent, becoming matted, the hairs short- to rather long-stalked, porrect-stellate, multangulate, dendritic-multangulate, and dendritic-echinoid, nearly furfuraceous.

Sympodial Structure

Sympodial units plurifoliate, axillary leaves lacking.

Leaves

Leaves simple, the blades 14-32 x 4.2-12 cm, ca. 2.5 times as long as wide, ovate to ovate-elliptic, coriaceous, dark green, velutinous to glabrate adaxially, the hairs touching or lacking, short-stalked, porrect-stellate, whitish tomentose-pubescent abaxially, the hairs stalked, porrect-stellate; unarmed; main lateral veins 10-15 on each side of midrib; bases acute, obtuse, or cuneate; margins entire, occasionally appearing slightly crisped (wavy) in herbarium specimens; apex acute or attenuate; petioles 1-5 cm, ca. 1/14-1/6 the length of the blades, tomentose-pubescent, the hairs mixed sessile and stalked, porrect-stellate, multangulate, and dendritic-multangulate, nearly furfuraceous.

Inflorescences

Inflorescences 7-16 cm, pseudo-terminal, many times branched, with ca. 80-240 flowers, the axes unarmed, softly tomentose-pubescent, the hairs mixed sessile and stalked, porrect-stellate, multangulate, and dendritic-multangulate; peduncle (6.1-) 9.8-15.4 x 0.2-0.5 cm, sulcate; rachis 0.6-2.2 (-6.1) cm; pedicels 1.5-3 mm in flower, 4.5-5.5 mm in fruit, closely spaced 0.8-2.8 (-4.4) mm apart, articulated at the base.

Flowers

Buds 6-8 mm long at anthesis, oblong; corolla tomentose-pubescent in bud, the hairs mixed sessile and short-stalked, porrect-stellate, thin-walled, transparent; calyx lobe sutures obscured by tomentum. Flowers all apparently perfect; calyx subcampanulate, 3.6-5.7 mm long, the tube 2.2-3.3 mm, lobed 1/2-2/3 way to the base, the lobes often splitting unevenly, 1.1-4 x 1.5-3 mm in flower, acute, obtuse or semi-ovate, chartaceous, somewhat translucent, tomentose-pubescent abaxially, the hairs sessile and short-stalked, porrect-stellate and multangulate, a few minute simple and porrect-stellate hairs adaxially on upper fourth of lobes; fruiting calyx accrescent, enveloping but not completely covering the fruit, pubescence as in flower, the lobes 2.9-6 x 5-6.5 mm. Corolla 1-2.2 (-3.1) cm in diameter, 8-14 mm long, soon exserted from calyx, nearly the length of calyx or its lobes by anthesis, stellate, chartaceous, white, the tube 2.3-3.8 mm, the lobes 6-10 x 2.7-4 (-5.5) mm, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, pubescence as in bud abaxially, with few simple and porrect-stellate hairs on upper fourth adaxially. Stamens with filaments 0.9-2 mm, inserted on corolla tube 0.9-1.9 mm above base, glabrous; anthers 3-4.6 x 0.8-1.5 mm, lanceolate, blunt-tipped, golden yellow, free, poricidal at the tips, the pores directed distally and somewhat adaxially, farinose around edges, lengthening to longitudinal slits with age. Ovary subconical to subglobose, tomentose-pubescent, the hairs porrect-stellate and multangulate; style 5.3-6.4 x 0.2-0.3 mm, exserted from stamens, cylindrical, densely pubescent on lower 2/3-3/4, the hairs porrect-stellate and multangulate; stigma capitate.

Fruits

Fruit a fleshy berry, 0.8-1.2 cm in diameter, globose, obtuse at apex, green, sparsely pubescent, the hairs sessile and short-stalked, porrect-stellate and multangulate.

Seeds

Seeds 3.1-3.8 x 2.5-3 mm, suborbicular, yellowish-tan, the surface reticulate-punctate.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
A relatively widely ranging species of Atlantic coastal forest.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Evolution and Systematics

Systematics or Phylogenetics

Phylogeny

Solanum bullatum is a typical member of Solanum section Brevantherum (the Brevantherum clade of Bohs, 2005). Its phylogenetic position within the Brevantherum clade has not been investigated using molecular data.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LR/cd
Lower Risk/conservation dependent

Red List Criteria

Version
2.3

Year Assessed
1998
  • Needs updating

Assessor/s
Carvalho, L.d'A.F.

Reviewer/s

Contributor/s
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Solanum bullatum

Solanum bullatum is a species of plant in the Solanaceae family. It is endemic to Brazil.

Source


Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

References and More Information

Commentary

Solanum bullatum is not clearly related to the other species of sect. Brevantherum. Its rather furfuraceous pubescence allies it with sect. Anthoresis while its accrescent calyces and glabrate upper leaf surfaces place it close to S. leucodendron and other species in sect. Lepidotum. Indeed, Dunal (1852) regarded his S. macropus (based on S. bullatum Vell.) as a member of sect. Lepidotum. S. bullatum provides evidence for the close relationship of sections Brevantherum, Anthoresis, and Lepidotum. It is characterized by young branches and peduncles sulcate; stem hairs partly dendritic, nearly furfuraceous; leaves coriaceous, glabrate above; calyx accrescent in fruit; rays of hairs often variously twisted.

A type specimen of S. bullatum is unknown. The illustration in Vellozo’s plates from the Flora Fluminensis (1831, vol. 2, tab. 104) is definitive in essential characters and Roe (1972) suggested this plate was a logical choice for a lectotype but did not effectively lectotypify S. bullatum by stating ambiguously that it “may be regarded as type in lieu of a specimen”.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!