Localities documented in Tropicos sources
Peru (South America)
Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
- SPECIMEN BASED RECORD. Published protolog data. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/9990002
HabitSpreading, erect or often prostrate, perennial herbs, woody at the base, to 1 m tall, to 1 m or more in diameter. Stem 7-12 mm in diameter at base, green, glabrous to variously pubescent with a mixture of simple uniseriate trichomes, short trichomes to 0.5 mm long, (these eglandular or with a 1-celled head), longer patent trichomes to ca. 1 mm long, from multicellular bases, short glandular trichomes with 1-celled or multicellular heads, some populations (Chota Valley ) with very sparse short unicellular trichomes.
Sympodial StructureSympodial units 2-foliate; internodes 2-6 cm long.
LeavesLeaves interrupted imparipinnate, (3-) 5-15 (--25) cm long, (1) 2.5-7 (-10) cm wide, green to pale beneath, glabrous to sparsely short pubescent to densely pubescent with a mixture of simple uniseriate trichomes, some populations lacking stout patent trichomes to 1 mm long on the leaves, adaxially nearly glabrous with a few scattered 1-celled trichomes to densely pubescent with short and long trichomes, abaxially the pubescence more abundant, with more stout trichomes to 1 mm long, along the veins; primary leaflets 2-4 (--5) pairs, the basal pair half the size of the rest, elliptic to broadly elliptic, the base acute to truncate, oblique and decurrent basiscopically, the margins almost entire (Jequetepeque) to regularly or irregularly crenate-serrate to lobed, the apex acute; terminal leaflet usually longer than the lateral leaflets, 1.2-5 cm long, 0.6-2 (-2.5) cm wide, the petiolule 0.5-1 cm long, the apex long-acuminate in Marañón populations; lateral leaflets 0.7-3.5 (-5) cm long, 0.4-2 (2.5) cm wide, the petiolule 0.2-1 cm long; secondary leaflets occasionally present acroscopically on the larger leaflets, 0.1-0.2 cm long, 0.1-0.2 cm wide, sessile; tertiary leaflets absent; interjected leaflets 0-8, 0.1-0.5 cm long, 0.1-0.4 cm wide, decurrent on the leaflet rachis; petiole 0.5-2.5 (-3.5) cm long; pseudostipules present but not developed at all nodes, 0.5-1 cm long, 0.5-1 cm wide, the margin entire to irregularly crenate.
InflorescencesInflorescences 6-20 cm long, simple, with 5-20 flowers, ebracteate or nearly all the nodes bracteate, the bracts 0.1-0.4 (-1) cm long, 0.1-0.2 (-1) cm wide, larger in the basal nodes, peduncle (1.5-) 3.5-10 cm long, glabrous and minutely glandular to densely velvety pubescent with intermixed longer patent trichomes like those of the stems. Pedicels 1.1-1.7 cm long, articulated at the middle or in the distal half. Buds 0.8-1 cm long, 0.3-0.4 cm wide, conical, straight, with the corolla approximately half way exserted from the calyx just before anthesis.
FlowersFlowers with the calyx tube minute, the lobes 0.5-0.7 cm long, 0.15-0.2 cm wide, lanceolate, glabrous to pubescent like those of the inflorescence; corolla 1.8-2 cm in diameter, pentagonal, yellow, the tube 0.5-0.6 (-0.8) cm long, the lobes 0.8-1 cm long, 0.8-1 cm wide, white pubescent on the tips and margins, reflexed at anthesis; staminal column 0.8-0.9 cm long, straight, the filaments 0.25-0.5 mm long, the anthers 0.4-0.5 cm long, the sterile apical appendage 0.1-0.25 cm long; ovary globose, glabrous or with a few minute trichomes at the apex; style 0.8-1 cm long, ca. 0.5 mm in diameter, densely white pubescent in the basal half, straight, scarcely exserted to exserted ca. 0.5 mm from the staminal column; stigma capitate, green.
FruitsFruit 1-1.4 cm in diameter, globose, 2-locular, green with a dark green stripe from the apex to the base, that could change to purple at maturity, glabrous to more or less densely pubescent with weak-walled simple uniseriate trichomes less than 0.5 mm long; fruiting pedicels 1.5-2.3 cm long, angled towards the inflorescence axis, occasionally straight; calyx lobes in fruit 0.9-1 cm long, 0.2-0.25 cm wide, spreading to loosely investing the berry.
SeedsSeeds 2.2-3.2 mm long, 1.2-1.6 mm wide, 0.5-0.6 mm thick, obovate, pale brown pubescent with hair-like outgrowths of the lateral testa cell walls, which give a silky appearance to the surface, narrowly winged at the apex and acute at the base.
Catalog Number: US 2469601
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Status verified from secondary sources
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): P. C. Hutchison & J. K. Wright
Year Collected: 1964
Locality: Cerros Calla Calla 9 km east of Balsas on the road to Leimebamba, rock-piles along the road., Chachapoyas, Amazonas, Peru, South America
Elevation (m): 1340
- Isotype: Peralta, I. & Knapp, S. 2005. Syst. Bot. 30: 426.
Life History and Behavior
Evolution and Systematics
Systematics or Phylogenetics
The wild tomato is a perennial herb, woody at the base, the herb being up to 1 metre (3.3 ft) or more in diameter and up to 1m tall. Its stem is between 7 and 12 millimetres (0.28 and 0.47 in) in diameter at its base, often hollow, green, glabrous to variously pubescent with a mixture of simple uniseriate trichomes.
Its sympodial units are 2-foliate; internodes being between 2 and 6 centimetres (0.79 and 2.36 in). Its leaves are interrupted imparipinnate, green to pale beneath, glabrous to sparsely short pubescent with a mixture of simple uniseriate trichomes, some populations lacking trichomes. The petiolule is between 0.5 and 1 centimetre (0.20 and 0.39 in).
Inﬂorescences are between 6 and 20 centimetres (2.4 and 7.9 in) in size, simple, with 5–20 ﬂowers, ebracteate or nearly all the nodes bracteate; peduncle between 3.5 and 10 centimetres (1.4 and 3.9 in), glabrous and minutely glandular to densely velvety pubescent with intermixed longer patent trichomes like those of the stems. The pedicels are between 1.1 and 1.7 centimetres (0.43 and 0.67 in), articulated at the middle or in the distal half. Buds are conical, straight, approximately half way exerted from the calyx. Flowers with the calyx tube are minute, the lobes lanceolate; corolla is between 1.8 and 2 centimetres (0.71 and 0.79 in), pentagonal and yellow.
Ovary is globose, glabrous or with a few minute trichomes at the apex; the style being between 0.8 and 1 centimetre (0.31 and 0.39 in); stigma capitate and green. The fruit is between 1 and 1.4 centimetres (0.39 and 0.55 in) in diameter, globose and green with a dark green stripe around it that may change to purple at maturity. Seeds are obovate, narrowly winged at the apex and acute at the base, pale brown, pubescent with hair-like outgrowths of the tegument cell radial walls, which give the surface a silky appearance. Chromosome number: n=12.
It is found in coastal and inland Andean valleys in northern Peru (between 100 and 2,500 metres (330 and 8,200 ft)).
- Stadler, T.; Arunyawat, U.; Stephan, W. (2008). "Population Genetics of Speciation in Two Closely Related Wild Tomatoes (Solanum Section Lycopersicon)". Genetics 178 (1): 339–350. doi:10.1534/genetics.107.081810. ISSN 0016-6731.
- Jablonska B, Ammiraju JS, Bhattarai KK, et al. (February 2007). "The Mi-9 gene from Solanum arcanum conferring heat-stable resistance to root-knot nematodes is a homolog of Mi-1". Plant Physiology 143 (2): 1044–54. doi:10.1104/pp.106.089615. PMC 1803715. PMID 17172289. Retrieved 2013-07-15.
References and More Information