Overview

Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Solanum hibiscifolium Rusby:
Bolivia (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Solanum abutiloides (Griseb.) Bitter & Lillo:
Argentina (South America)
Bolivia (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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In scrub thickets on rocky or sandy stream banks and open waste lands along the Cordillera Central of Bolivia and the eastern Andean slopes of Argentina. Generally found at higher elevations from 900 to 3600 m.

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Formal Description

Habit

Shrubs or trees, 1-3 m tall, unarmed. Bark of older stems yellowish brown; young branches terete, yellowish green, persistently soft granular tomentose with stellate hairs, the hairs mixed short- and long-stalked, multangulate and dendritic-multangulate, glandular.

Sympodial Structure

Sympodial units plurifoliate, axillary leaves usually present, ovate to narrowly ovate.

Leaves

Leaves simple, the blades 7-27 x 6-12 cm, ca. 1-2 times as long as wide, ovate, often broadly so, chartaceous, strongly scented, dark green, velutinous-pubescent adaxially, the hairs spaced to overlapping, mixed sessile and short-stalked, porrect-stellate with especially long central rays, the surface stipitate-glandular at 12x magnification, pale green, tomentose-pubescent abaxially, the hairs mixed sessile and short-stalked, multangulate, in part glandular, hair surfaces minutely stipitate-glandular, unarmed; main lateral veins 6-8 on each side of midrib; base cordate; margin entire; apex acute; petioles 2-10 cm, ca. 1/3 the length of the blades, soft granular tomentose-pubescent, the hairs sessile, short and partly long, thick-stalked, multangulate and dendritic-multangulate.

Inflorescences

Inflorescences 5-14 cm, pseudo-terminal, branched, with 25-60 flowers, the axes unarmed, lanate-pubescent, the hairs short to long, thin-stalked, multangulate, dendritic-multangulate, glandular; peduncle 8.3-12 x 0.1-0.4 cm; rachis 0.5-2.5 cm; pedicels 3-6 mm in flower, 5-16 mm in fruit, closely spaced 2-3.5 mm apart, slightly expanded at the base, articulated at the base.

Flowers

Buds 7-9 mm long at anthesis, oblong to elliptic; corolla lanate-pubescent in bud, the hairs mixed sessile and short-stalked, multangulate, glandular; calyx lobe sutures not evident, the calyx splitting open early. Flowers all apparently perfect; calyx subcampanulate, 7-9.5 mm long, the tube 3-4 mm, lobed 2/3 way to the base to nearly parted, the lobes 2.5-9.3 x 2.2-5.5 mm in flower, lanceolate to semi-ovate, subcoriaceous, densely stellate-pubescent abaxially with most hairs sessile, some short-stalked, simple glandular and porrect-stellate pubescent with long central glandular rays adaxially in upper two-thirds of lobes, the hairs transparent, calyx and hair surfaces minutely stipitate-multangulate; fruiting calyx somewhat accrescent, the lobes 6.5-10 x 3.2-6 mm. Corolla 1.5-1.8 cm in diameter, 8-10.5 mm long, stellate, chartaceous but appearing thickened due to dense pubescence, white to bluish (also reportedly light yellow), weakly exserted from calyx at anthesis, the tube 4-4.5 mm, the lobes 4-7 x 3-4.8 mm, ovate-lanceolate, densely stellate-pubescent abaxially with most hairs sessile, some short-stalked, glabrous adaxially or with occasional simple and few-rayed porrect-stellate hairs at tips. Stamens with filaments 1.3-2 mm, inserted on corolla tube 1.7-1.9 mm above base, glabrous; anthers 2.7-4.3 x 1-1.6 mm, oblong, blunt-tipped, yellow, free, poricidal at the tips, the pores directed distally and somewhat adaxially, farinose around edges, lengthening to longitudinal slits with age. Ovary conical, tomentose-pubescent, the hairs mixed sessile and short-stalked, simple and multangulate with some long ascending rays; style 4-4.4 x 0.2-0.4 mm, exserted exerted from stamens, cylindrical, glabrous or with few porrect-stellate hairs on lower half; stigma capitate.

Fruits

Fruit a fleshy berry, 1-1.1 cm in diameter, conical to orbicular, obtuse at apex, yellow when ripe, dark brown when dried, the tomentum persistent, the hairs mixed sessile and short-stalked, simple and multangulate with some long ascending rays.

Seeds

Seeds 1.2-1.5 x 1-1.3 mm, deltoid or suborbicular, yellowish tan, the surface reticulate-punctate.

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Type Information

Isotype for Solanum hibiscifolium Rusby
Catalog Number: US 57452
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): M. Bang
Year Collected: 1891
Locality: Vic. Cochabamba., Cochabamba, Bolivia, South America
  • Isotype: Rusby, H. H. 1896. Mem. Torrey Bot. Club. 6: 88.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Isotype for Solanum hibiscifolium Rusby
Catalog Number: US 1324569
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): M. Bang
Year Collected: 1891
Locality: Vicinity of Cochabamba., Cochabamba, Bolivia, South America
  • Isotype: Rusby, H. H. 1896. Mem. Torrey Bot. Club. 6: 88.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Evolution and Systematics

Systematics or Phylogenetics

Phylogeny

Solanum abutiloides belongs to the Brevantherum clade of Solanum (Bohs, 2005).

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Wikipedia

Solanum abutiloides

Solanum abutiloides is a species of plant in the Solanaceae family. It is endemic to Argentina and Bolivia, and thrives as a weedy plant in rocky land, on stream banks, and scrub land between 900-3600 meters in elevation. It is also known as dwarf tamarillo, due to superficial similarities with Solanum betaceum. Both plants are noted for very rapid growth from seed, and very strongly fragrant foliage. Solanum abutiloides is also sometimes known by the archaic Cyphomandra sibundoyensis.

Solanum abutiloides quickly matures into a shrub or small tree up to 9 m tall, though usually far smaller. Small flowers form on branches throughout the plant, and individual clusters of flowers can contain as many as 60 blooms.

Blooms are followed by fruits - a small oblong berry that ripens to a yellow-orange color. The berries are around 1 cm (or slightly larger) in diameter. When unripe, the berries are mildly toxic (as are tamarillos), though they are edible upon ripening.

Uses[edit source | edit]

The fruits are edible, though Solanum abutiloides is rare in cultivation and plants have not been bred for quality of flavor. Therefore, the fruit can often have an unpredictable or unpleasant flavor, and Solanum abutiloides is most often cultivated as an ornamental plant, as the clusters of ripe fruit are very decorative.

As is common with solanaceae, pests like aphids, spider mites, and white flies are attracted to the trees.

References[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ Bitter 1913, pp. 136–137.


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References and More Information

Commentary

Solanum abutiloides is distinguished by its glandular hairs and stipitate glands on many plant parts, its cordate leaves, deeply lobed calyces, and strong odor of the foliage.

This unmistakable species is so different from the others in sect. Brevantherum that one might question its inclusion here. However, the basic growth pattern of S. abutiloides is the same as that characterizing the section, while the unique, specialized features are found in more plastic parts such as leaves and hairs. Nevertheless, it remains the most distinct and one of the most specialized species in the section. Geological evidence suggests that it is also one of the most recently evolved, existing in areas of Pleistocene glaciation (Harrington, 1962; Childs & Beebe, 1963).

Although Grisebach did not mention a particular collection or herbarium in his description of Cyphomandra abutiloides, the entire contribution in which the description appears was devoted to the collections made by Lorentz during his collecting in the greater Gran Chaco area (Grisebach, 1879). Morton (1976) lectotypified the species using a duplicate of the destroyed sheet in Berlin which has been annotated by Grisebach.

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