Overview

Brief Summary

Introduction

Diagnosis

A gonatid ...

  • without tentacles as subadult.

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Comprehensive Description

Characteristics

  1. Arms
    1. Hooks in medial two armature series on arms I-III.

  2. Tentacles
    1. Tentacles absent beyond early juvenile stages.

      Figure. Oral view of the brachial crown of Gonatopsis borealis, 65 mm ML, off Aleutian Islands, preserved. White numerals identify the arms. Note that there is no trace of tentacles between arms III and IV. Photograph by R. Young.

  3. Head
    1. Radula with teeth in 5 or 7 series depending on species.

  4. Mantle
    1. Mantle tissue muscular or flabby depending on species.

  5. Fins
    1. Fins rhomboid or sagittate in shape depending on species.

  6. Photophores
    1. Photophores absent.

Comments

Gonatopsis is divided into two subgenera on the basis of the radular structure. G. (Gonatopsis) with a five-tooth radula and G. (Boreoteuthis) with a seven-tooth radula.

Species / Character Habitat Numerous sucker series at arm tips Radular teeth Arm length Tail length
G. borealis
North Pacific No 7 40-50% ML No tail
G. japonicus Japanese waters No 5 55% ML long
G. makko Northern-, western North Pacific No 5 65% ML very short
G. octopedatus Western North Pacific
Yes 5 80-85% ML No tail
G. sp. A Eastern North Pacific Yes ? ? ?
G. okutanii ? * Western North Pacific No 5 ca. 100 % ML ?
*Does not belong in Gonatopsis; tentacles apparently absent only in spent females. Correct genus uncertain.

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 11 specimens in 6 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 6 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 5 - 3319
  Temperature range (°C): 1.469 - 16.387
  Nitrate (umol/L): 2.271 - 40.623
  Salinity (PPS): 34.061 - 34.679
  Oxygen (ml/l): 1.139 - 5.780
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.286 - 3.279
  Silicate (umol/l): 5.344 - 178.040

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 5 - 3319

Temperature range (°C): 1.469 - 16.387

Nitrate (umol/L): 2.271 - 40.623

Salinity (PPS): 34.061 - 34.679

Oxygen (ml/l): 1.139 - 5.780

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.286 - 3.279

Silicate (umol/l): 5.344 - 178.040
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Life History

Tentacles are present in paralarvae but are lost at different early stages depending on the species (Nesis, 1973).

Figure. Ventral view of a paralarva of G. borealis (bottom), 9 mm ML and an oral view of the paralarval tentacular club (top), 7 mm ML, off Southern California, U.S.A. Drawings from Young (1972).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:25Public Records:19
Specimens with Sequences:20Public Species:5
Specimens with Barcodes:20Public BINs:7
Species:6         
Species With Barcodes:5         
          
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Gonatopsis

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data: Gonatopsis cf. okutanii ARL-2008

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.   Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.  Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

TTTATCTTTGGTATTTGAGCAGGTCTACTAGGAACCTCCCTA---AGCCTAATAATTCGAACTGAATTGGGGCAACCTGGCTCTCTACTAAACGAC---GATCAACTTTATAACGTTGTAGTCACAGCCCATGGATTTATCATAATTTTTTTTTTGGTCATGCCTATCATAATTGGAGGATTTGGTAATTGACTTGTACCCTTAATA---CTAGGAGCCCCAGATATAGCTTTCCCTCGAATAAATAACATAAGATTTTGATTATTACCGCCTTCCTTAACACTATTACTAGCTTCCTCAGCCGTTGAAAGAGGGGCAGGTACAGGATGAACAGTCTACCCCCCTCTTTCWAGCAACTTATCTCATGCAGGACCTTCAGTTGATTTA---GCCATTTTTTCTTTACATCTAGCAGGTGTATCCTCCATTCTAGGAGCCATTAACTTCATTACTACAATTTTAAACATGCGATGAGAAGGGCTACAAATGGAACGACTACCCCTTTTTGCTTGATCTGTGTTTATTACCGCAATCTTACTACTTTTATCACTTCCTGTTTTAGCCGGA---GCTATTACTATACTATTAACTGACCGAAACTTTAACACAACCTTTTTTGACCCTAGGGGAGGAGGGGATCCCATCTTATACCAACACCTG
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Gonatopsis cf. okutanii ARL-2008

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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