Overview

Brief Summary

The overwhelming majority of described fungal species are members of the subkingdom Dikarya (Hibbett et al. 2007), which is composed of the two phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. The life cycles of most basidiomycetes include long-lived dikaryotic hyphae (i.e., hyphae in which cells contain a haploid nucleus from each parent rather than a single haploid or diploid nucleus), with the periodic production of fruiting bodies known as basidiocarps (the basidiocarps of many species are commonly referred to as "mushrooms"). Basidiomycota includes around 32,000 described species (Kirk et al. 2008).

Basidiomycota is divided into three subphyla:

1) Pucciniomycotina: Most of the species in this group are parasitic plant rusts (Aime et al. 2006).

2) Ustilaginomycotina: The vast majority of species in this group, often known as smut fungi, are parasites of angiosperms [flowering plants], mainly grasses and sedges (Begerow et al. 2006).

3) Agaricomycotina: This group includes around a third of the described species of Fungi, including mushrooms, jelly fungi (Millanes et al. 2011), and basidiomycetous yeasts (Fell et al. 2000; Scorzetti et al. 2002). There are around 21,000 described species of Agaricomycotina, which is around two thirds of known Basidiomycota (Kirk et al 2008). The Agaricomycotina includes many wood decayers, litter decomposers, and ectomycorrhizal fungi, along with relatively small numbers of important pathogens of timber, vegetable crops, and humans. Some Agaricomycotina are highly poisonous to humans, while others are hallucinogenic or edible. Edible species include cultivated saprotrophs (e.g., Agaricus bisporus and the Shiitake, Lentinula edodes) and field-collected mycorrhizal species (e.g., the chanterelle Cantharellus cibarius, the bolete Boletus edulis, and the Matsutake Tricholoma matsutake). Some species produce enormous fruiting bodies (e.g., the polypores Bridgeoporus nobilissimus in the Pacific Northwest of the United States, Fomitiporia ellipsoidea in China, and Rigidoporus ulmarius in Europe) or vast and long-lived underground mycelial networks (e.g., Armillaria ostoyae). (Hibbett 2006 and references therein)

Zhao et al. (2008) provide an overview of recent work on understanding phylogenetic relationships within the Agaricales, a major group within the Agaricomycotina that is the largest clade of mushroom-forming fungi (Matheny et al. 2006 and references therein).

  • Aime, M.C., P.B. Matheny, D.A. Henk, et al. 2006. An overview of the higher level classification of Pucciniomycotina based on combined analyses of nuclear large and small subunit rDNA sequences. Mycologia 98(6): 896-905.
  • Begerow, D., M. Stoll, and R. Bauer. 2006. A phylogenetic hypothesis of Ustilaginomycotina based on multiple gene analyses and morphological data. Mycologia 98(6): 906-916.
  • Fell, J.W., T. Boekhout, A. Fonseca, G. Scorzetti, and A. Statzell-Tallman. 2000. Biodiversity and systematics of basidiomycetous yeasts as determined by large-subunit rDNA D1/D2 domain sequence analysis. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 50: 1351-1371.
  • Hibbett, D.S. 2006. A phylogenetic overview of the Agaricomycotina. Mycologia 98(6): 917-925.
  • Hibbett, D.S., M. Binder, J.F. Bischoff, et al. 2007. A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi. Mycological Research 111: 509-547.
  • Kirk, P.M., P.F. Cannon, D.W. Minter, and J. A. Stalpers (eds.). 2008. Ainsworth and Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi, 10th edition. CAB International, Oxon, UK.
  • Matheny, P.B., J.M. Curtis, V. Hofstetter, et al. 2006. Major clades of Agaricales: a multilocus phylogenetic overview. Mycologia 98(6): 982-995.
  • Millanes, A.M., P. Diederich, S. Ekman, et al. 2011. Phylogeny and character evolution in the jelly fungi (Tremellomycetes, Basidiomycota, Fungi). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61(1): 12-28.
  • Scorzetti, G., J.W. Fell, A. Fonseca, and A. Statzell-Tallman. 2002. Systematics of basidiomycetous yeasts: a comparison of large subunit D1/D2 and internal transcribed spacer rDNA regions. FEMS Yeast Research 2: 495-517.
  • Zhao, R., D.E. Desjardin, K. Soytong, Kasem, et al. 2008. Advances in the phylogenesis of Agaricales and its higher ranks and strategies for establishing phylogenetic hypotheses. Journal of Zhejiang University-Science B 9(10): 779-786.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:36,845Public Records:29,837
Specimens with Sequences:33,371Public Species:7,397
Specimens with Barcodes:31,377Public BINs:0
Species:9,315         
Species With Barcodes:8,436         
          
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Barcode data

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Basidiomycota

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