The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


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  • Bailey, L.H. & E.Z. Bailey. 1976. Hortus Third i–xiv, 1–1290. MacMillan, New York.
  • Biegel, H.M. (1977) Check-list of ornamental plants used in Rhodesian parks and gardens. Rhodesia Agricultural Journal. Research Report No. 3. Page 20
  • Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Flora of China Editorial Committee. 1988-2013. Flora of China (Checklist & Addendum). Unpaginated. In C. Y. Wu, P. H. Raven & D. Y. Hong (eds.) Fl. China. Science Press & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing & St. Louis.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Hannoverisches Magazin 1783: 227. 1783. (Hannover. Mag.)
  • Hess, H. & al. (1976-1980). Flora der Schweiz. Ed. 2. Birkhäuser, Basel.
  • Hickman, J. C. 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California 1–1400. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (09/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • ISSG, 2005. Ailanthus altissima. Global Invasive Species Database. Invasive Species Specialist Group, IUCN :
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 6(14): 495. 1916. (J. Wash. Acad. Sci.)
  • KISC Early Detection Weekly Report, report 7
  • Landolt, E. (1977). Ökologische Zeigerwerte zur Schweizer Flora. Veröff. Geobot. Inst. ETH Stiftung Rübel Zürich 64.
  • Landolt, E. (1991). Gefährdung der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen in der Schweiz mit gesamtschweizerischen und regionalen roten Listen / Plantes vasculaires menacées en Suisse: listes rouges nationale et régionales. BUWAL / OFEFP, Bern.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Marticorena, C. & M. Quezada. 1985. Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Chile. Gayana, Bot. 42: 1–157.
  • Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck. 1959. Cal. Fl. 1–1681. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Munz, P. A. 1974. Fl. S. Calif. 1–1086. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Mémoires de la Société des Sciences Naturelles de Cherbourg 38: 637, 679. 1912. (Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Math. Cherbourg)
  • Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali (eds). 1980-2005. Fl. Pakistan Univ. of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Dec 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Schwegman, J. E. 1991. The Vascular Flora of Langham Island, Kankakee County, Illinois. Erigenia 11: 1–8.
  • Simaroubaceae of North America Update
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
  • Wunderlin, R. P. 1998. Guide Vasc. Pl. Florida i–x, 1–806. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
  • Zuloaga, F. O., O. N. Morrone, M. J. Belgrano, C. Marticorena & E. Marchesi. (eds.) 2008. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares del Cono Sur. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 107(1–3): i–xcvi, 1–3348.
    1. Adamik, K., and F. E. Brauns. 1957. Ailanthus glendulosa  (Tree-of-heaven) as a pulpwood. Part II. TAPPI  40:522-527.
    3. Baker, Whiteford L. 1972. Eastern forest insects. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1175.  Washington, DC. 642 p.
    5. Croxton, W. C. 1939. A study of the tolerance of trees to  breakage by ice accumulation. Ecology 20:71-73.
    7. Davies, P. A. 1944. The root system of Ailanthus  altissima. Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of  Sciences 1 1(34):33-35.
    9. DenUyl, Daniel. 1962. Survival and growth of hardwood  plantations on strip mine spoil banks in Indiana. Journal of  Forestry 60:603-606.
    11. Feret, Peter P., R. L. Bryant, and J. A. Ramsey. 1974.  Genetic variation among American seed sources of Ailanthus  altissima (Mill.) Swingle. Scientia Horticulturae  2:405-411.
    13. Goor, A. Y., and C. W. Barney. 1968. Forest tree planting in  arid zones. Ronald Press, New York. 409 p.
    15. Grime, J. P. 1965. Shade tolerance in flowering plants.  Nature 208(5006):161-163.
    17. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees  of the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 386. Washington, DC. 658 p.
    19. Hottes, Alfred Carl. 1952. The book of trees. 3d ed. A. T.  De La Mare, New York. 440 p.
    21. Hu, Shiu-Ying. 1979. Ailanthus. Arnoldia 39(2):29-50.
    23. Illick, Joseph S., and E. F. Brouse. 1926. The ailanthus  tree in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Department of Forestry  and Water Bulletin 38:1-29.
    25. Melville, R. 1944. Ailanthus, source of peculiar London  honey. Nature 134:640.
    27. Mergen, F. 1959. A toxic principle in the leaves of Ailanthus.  Botanical Gazette 121:32-36.
    29. Patterson, D. T. 1976. The history and distribution of five  exotic weeds in North Carolina. Castanea 41(2):177-180. 
    31. Pirone, P. P. 1959. Tree maintenance, 3d ed. Oxford  University Press, New York. 436 p.
    33. Plass, W. T. 1975. An evaluation of trees and shrubs for  planting surface-mine spoils. USDA Forest Service, Research  Paper NE-137. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper  Darby, PA. 8 p.
    35. Schopmeyer, C. S., tech. coord. 1974. Seeds of woody plants  in the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 450. Washington, DC. 883 p.
    37. Swingle, W. T. 1916. The early European history and the  botanical name of the tree-of-heaven, Ailanthus  altissima. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences  6:409-498.
    39. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1949. Trees. Yearbook of  Agriculture 1949. Washington, DC. 944 p.
    41. Vines, Robert A. 1977. Trees of East Texas. University of  Texas Press, Austin and London. 538 p.
    43. Voigt, G. W., and F. Mergen. 1962. Seasonal variation in  toxicity of Ailanthus leaves on pine seedlings.  Botanical Gazette 123(4):262-265.
    45. Wright, Ernest, and H. R. Wells. 1948. Tests on the  adaptability of trees and shrubs to shelterbelt planting on  certain Phymatotrichum root rot infested soils in  Oklahoma and Texas. Journal of Forestry 46:256-262.


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