The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Buck, K. and D. Garrison, D. 1988. Distribution and abundance of choanoflagellates (Acanthoecidae) across the ice-edge zone in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Mar. Biol. , 98 pp. 263-269.
  • Burger, G. L. Forget, Y. Zhu, M. Gray, and B. Lang. 2003. Unique mitochondrial genome architecture in unicellular relatives of animals. Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences (U.S.A.) 100 (3): 892-897.
  • ChoanoWiki contributors, 'Choanoflagellates', ChoanoWiki, , 13 July 2011, 05:28 UTC, [accessed 7 December 2012]
  • Fujikura K, Lindsay D, Kitazato H, Nishida S, Shirayama. 2010. Marine Biodiversity in Japanese Waters. PLoS ONE 5(8): e11836. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011836
  • King, N., H. Christopher, and S. Carroll. 2003. Evolution of key cell signaling and adhesion protein families predates animal origins. Science, 301(5631): 361-363.
  • Lavrov, D., L. Forget, M. Kelly, and B. Lang. 2005. Mitochondrial genomes of two Demosponges provide insights into an early stage of animal evolution. Molecular Biology and Evolution 22(5): 1231-1239.
  • Leadbeater, B. and M. Kelly, M. 2001. Evolution of animals choanoflagellates and sponges. Water and Atmosphere Online. 9 (2): 9-11.
  • Mendoza, L. and Taylor, J. and Ajello, L. (2002) The class mesomycetozoea: a heterogeneous group of microorganisms at the animal-fungal boundary. Annual Review of Microbiology 56: 315-344.
  • Ruiz-Trillo, I,, Y. Inagaki, L.A. Davis, S. Sperstad, B. Landfald, and A.J. Roger. 2004. Capsaspora owczarzaki is an independent opisthokont lineage. Current Biology 14(22): R946-947.
  • Ruiz-Trillo, I., C.E. Lane, M.J. Archibald, and A.J. Roger. 2006. Insights into the evolutionary origin and genome architecture of the unicellular opisthokonts Capsaspora owczarzaki and Sphaeroforma arctica. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 53(5): 379-84.
  • Steenkamp, E., J. Wright, and S. Baldauf. 2006. The Protistan Origins of Animals and Fungi. Molecular Biology and Evolution 23(1): 93-106.
  • Thomsen, H.A. 1982. Planktonic choanoflagellates from Disko Bugt, West Greenland, with a survey of the marine nanoplankton of the area. Meddelelser om Gronland, Bioscience 8: 3-36.
  • Thomsen, H.A., K. Buck, and F. Chavez. 1991 Choanoflagellates of the central California waters: Taxonomy, morphology and species assemblages. Ophelia, 33(2): 131-164.
  • Wainright, P. , G. Hinkle, M. Sogin, and S. Stickle. 1993. Monophyletic origins of the metazoa: an evolutionary link with fungi. Science, 260 (5106): 340-342.
  • WoRMS (2014). Choanozoa. In: Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2014). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway (taxonomic information republished from AlgaeBase with permission of M.D. Guiry). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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