The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Alexopoulos, C. J., C. W. Mims and M. Blackwell. 1996. Introductory mycology. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
  • Benny G. L. and K. O'Donnell. 2000. Amoebidium parasiticum is a protozoan, not a Trichomycete. Mycologia 92: 1133-1137.
  • Benny, G. L., R. A. Humber and J. B. Morton. 2001. Zygomycota: Zygomycetes. Pp. 113-146. In: The Mycota VII. Systematics and Evolution. Part A. (McLaughlin, D. J., McLaughlin, E. G. and Lemke, P. A., eds.). Springer-Verlag, New York.
  • Berbee, M. L. and J. W. Taylor. 1993. Dating the evolutionary radiations of the true fungi. Can. J. Bot. 71: 1114-1127.
  • Berbee, M. L. and J. W. Taylor. 2001. Fungal molecular evolution: gene trees and geologic time. Pp. 229-245. In: The Mycota VII. Systematics and Evolution. Part B. (McLaughlin, D. J., McLaughlin, E. G. and Lemke, P. A., eds.). Springer-Verlag, New York.
  • Bidochka, M. J., S. R. A. Walsh, M. E. Ramos, R. J. St. Leger, J. C. Silver and D. W. Roberts. 1996. Fate of biological control introductions: monitoring an Australian fungal pathogen of grasshoppers in North America. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 918-921.
  • Blackwell, M., and D. Malloch. 1989. Similarity of Amphoromorpha and secondary capilliconidia of Basidiobolus. Mycologia 81: 735-741.
  • Bruns, T. D., R. Vilgalys, S. M. Barns, D. Gonzalez, D. S. Hibbett, D. J. Lane, L. Simon, S. Stickel, T. M. Szaro, W. G. Weisburg and M. L. Sogin. 1992. Evolutionary relationships within the fungi: analyses of nuclear small subunit RNA sequences. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 1: 231-241.
  • Cavalier-Smith, T. 1998. A revised six-kingdom system of life. Biol. Rev. 73: 203-266.
  • Cole, G. T. and R. A. Samson. 1979. Patterns of development in conidial fungi. Pitman, London.
  • Eslava, A. P., M. I. Alvarez, and M. Delbrück. 1975. Meiosis in Phycomyces. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72: 4076-4080.
  • Hajek, A. E. 1999. Pathology and epizootiology of Entomophaga maimaga infections in forest Lepidoptera. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 63: 814-835.
  • Heckman, D. S., D. M. Geiser, B. R. Eidell, R. L. Stauffer, N. L. Kardos and S. B. Hedges. 2001. Molecular evidence for the early colonization of land by fungi and plants. Science 293: 1129-1133.
  • Hesseltine, C. W. 1991. Zygomycetes in food fermentations. The Mycologist 5: 162-169.
  • Hibbett, D. S., M. Binder, J. F. Bischoff, M. Blackwell, P. F. Cannon, O. E. Eriksson, S. Huhndorf, T. James, P. M. Kirk, R. Lucking, H. T. Lumbsch, F. Lutzoni, P. B. Matheny, D. J. McLaughlin, M. J. Powell, S. Redhead, C. L. Schoch, J. W. Spatafora, J. A. Stalpers, R. Vilgalys, M. C. Aime, A. Aptroot, R. Bauer, D. Begerow, G. L. Benny, L. A. Castlebury, P. W. Crous, Y.-C. Dai, W. Gams, D. M. Geiser, G. W. Griffith, C. Gueidan, D. L. Hawksworth, G. Hestmark, K. Hosaka, R. A. Humber, K. D. Hyde, J. E. Ironside, U. Koljalg, C. P. Kurtzman, K.-H. Larsson, R. Lichtwardt, J. Longcore, J. Miadlikowska, A. Miller, J.-M. Moncalvo, S. Mozley-Standridge, F. Oberwinkler, E. Parmasto, V. Reeb, J. D. Rogers, C. Roux, L. Ryvarden, J. P. Sampaio, A. Schüßler, J. Sugiyama, R. G. Thorn, L. Tibell, W. A. Untereiner, C. Walker, Z. Wang, A. Weir, M. Weiss, M. M. White, K. Winka, Y.-J. Yao and N. Zhang. 2007. A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi. Mycol. Res. 111: 509-547.
  • James, T. Y., D. Porter, C. A. Leander, R. Vilgalys and J. E. Longcore. 2000. Molecular phylogenetics of the Chytridiomycota supports the utility of ultrastructural data in chytrid systematics. Can. J. Bot. 78: 336-350.
  • James, T. Y., F. Kauff, C. Schoch, P. B. Matheny, V. Hofstetter, C. Cox, G. Celio, C. Gueidan, E. Fraker, J. Miadlikowska, H. T. Lumbsch, A. Rauhut, V. Reeb, A. E. Arnold, A. Amtoft, J. E. Stajich, K. Hosaka, G.-H. Sung, D. Johnson, B. O’Rourke, M. Crockett, M. Binder, J. M. Curtis, J. C. Slot, Z. Wang, A. W. Wilson, A. Schüßler, J. E. Longcore, K. O’Donnell, S. Mozley-Standridge, D. Porter, P. M. Letcher, M. J. Powell, J. W. Taylor, M. M. White, G. W. Griffith, D. R. Davies, R. A. Humber, J. B. Morton, J. Sugiyama, A. Y. Rossman, J. D. Rogers, D. H. Pfister, D. Hewitt, K. Hansen, S. Hambleton, R. A. Shoemaker, J. Kohlmeyer, B. Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, R. A. Spotts, M. Serdani, P. W. Crous, K. W. Hughes, K. Matsuura, E. Langer, G. Langer, W. A. Untereiner, R. Lücking, B. Büdel, D. M. Geiser, A. Aptroot, P. Diederich, I. Schmitt, M. Schultz, R. Yahr, D. Hibbett, F Lutzoni, D. McLaughlin, J. Spatafora, and R. Vilgalys. 2006a. Reconstructing the early evolution of the fungi using a six gene phylogeny. Nature 443:818-822.
  • Jensen, A. B., A. Gargas, J. Eilenberg and S. Rosendahl. 1998. Relationships of the insect-pathogenic order Entomophthorales (Zygomycota, Fungi) based on phylogenetic analyses of nuclear small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences (SSU rDNA). Fungal Genet. Biol. 24: 325-334.
  • Keeling, P. J. 2003. Congruent evidence from alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin gene phylogenies for a zygomycete origin of microsporidia. Fungal Genet. Biol. 38: 298-309.
  • Keeling, P. J., M. A. Luker and J. D. Palmer. 2000. Evidence from beta-tubulin phylogeny that microsporidia evolved from within the Fungi. Mol. Biol. Evol. 17: 23-31.
  • Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David, and J. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth and Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi. 9th ed. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
  • Krejzova, R. 1978. Taxonomy, morphology and surface structure of Basidiobolus sp. isolate. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 31: 157-163.
  • Lichtwardt, R. W. 1986. The trichomycetes, fungal associates of arthropods. Springer-Verlag, New York.
  • Liu, Y., M. C. Hodson, and B. D. Hall. 2006. Loss of the flagellum happened only once in the fungal lineage: phylogenetic structure of kingdom Fungi inferred from RNA polymerase II subunit genes. BMC Evolutionary Biology 6:74.
  • Lutzoni, F., F. Kauff, C. J. Cox, D. McLaughlin, G. Celio, B. Dentinger, M. Padamsee, D. Hibbett, T. James, E. Baloch, M. Grube, V. Reeb, V. Hofstetter, C. Schoch, A. E. Arnold, J. Miadlikowska, J. Spatafora, D. Johnson, S. Hambleton, M. Crockett, R. Shoemaker, G.-H. Sung, R. Lücking, T. Lumbsch, K. O'Donnell, M. Binder, P. Diederich, D. Ertz, C. Gueidan, K. Hansen, R. C. Harris, K. Hosaka, Y.-W. Lim, B. Matheny, H. Nishida, D. Pfister, J. Rogers, A. Rossman, I. Schmitt, H. Sipman, J. Stone, J. Sugiyama, R. Yahr and R. Vilgalys. 2004. Assembling the fungal tree of life: Progress, classification, and evolution of subcellular traits Am. J. Bot. 91: 1446-1480.
  • McKerracher, L. J. and I. B. Heath. 1985. The structure and cycle of the nucleus-associated organelle in two species of Basidiobolus. Mycologia 77: 412-417.
  • Nagahama, T., H. Sato, M. Shimazo and J. Sugiyama. 1995. Phylogenetic divergence of the entomophthoralean fungi: evidence from nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Mycologia 87: 203-209.
  • O'Donnell, K. 1979. Zygomycetes in culture. Department of Botany, University of Georgia, Athens.
  • O'Donnell, K., E. Cigelnik and G. L. Benny. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships among the Harpellales and Kickxellales. Mycologia 90: 624-639.
  • O'Donnell, K., F. M. Lutzoni, T. J. Ward and G. L. Benny. 2001. Evolutionary relationships among mucoralean fungi (Zygomycota): Evidence for family polyphyly on a large scale. Mycologia 93: 286-296.
  • Schüßler, A., D. Schwarzott and C. Walker. 2001. A new fungal phylum, the Glomeromycota: phylogeny and evolution. Mycol. Res. 105: 1413-1421.
  • Tanabe Y., K. O'Donnell, M. Saikawa and J. Sugiyama. 2000. Molecular phylogeny of parasitic Zygomycota (Dimargaritales, Zoopagales) based on nuclear small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 16: 253-262.
  • Tanabe, Y., M. Saikawa, M. M. Watanabe and J. Sugiyama. 2004. Molecular phylogeny of Zygomycota based on EF-1 and RPB1 sequences: limitations and utility of alternative markers to rDNA. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 30: 438-449.
  • Ustinova, I., L. Krienitz and V. A. R. Huss. 2000. Hyaloraphidium curvatum is not a green alga, but a lower fungus; Amobedium parasiticum is not a fungus, but a member of the DRIPs. Protist 151: 253-262.
  • White, M. M., T. Y. James, K. O’Donnell, M. J. Cafaro, Y. Tanabe, and J. Sugiyama. 2006. Phylogeny of the Zygomycota based on nuclear ribosomal sequence data. Mycologia 98: 872-884.
  • WoRMS (2014). Zygomycota. In: Index Fungorum Partnership (2014) Index Fungorum. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • de Hoog, G. S., J. Guarro, J. Gene and M. J. Figueras. 2000. Atlas of clinical fungi, second addition. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Baarn and Delft, The Netherlands.


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