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Overview

Brief Summary

Mushrooms are not known to grow on the beach itself. However, unusual species grow in the beach ridge, living off of the dead roots of marram grass. Examples are dune brittlestem, Melanoleuca cinereifolia and stinkhorn. You find lots of other mushrooms in dunes further away from the coast which are otherwise very rare in other biotopes. Examples are collared earthstars, the waxcap Hygrocybe acutoconica, butter waxcaps and morels. Since coastal regions take much longer to freeze than inland, mushrooms are often found in the dunes practically year round. Dune woods are renowned for their abundance of mushrooms.
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Fungi belong to a separate kingdom of organisms, next to the plant and animal kingdom. Mushrooms are the aboveground fruits of certain fungi species. Other fungi species, such as bread mold, have much simpler fruit bodies. Yeast is an example of a one-celled fungus. There are also one-celled fungi that live in the sea. Furthermore, there are typical mushrooms found predominantly in coastal regions.
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Comprehensive Description

Description of Fungi

The term fungus has more than one meaning. It is best limited to members of the kingdom Fungi - in which the normal trophic form is a system of filaments or mycelia and from which spores are occasionally produced. Feeding usually occurs through the mycelia, and the spores usually facilitate distribution and help the fungus colonize new habitats. The true fungi have their evolutionary origins within the chytrids (some taxonomists include these within the fungi). In addition to the true fungi, a number of other evolutionary lineages have produced fungus-like organisms. The most similar are the oomycetes, a lineage that is related to diatoms and brown algae - all being members of the stramenopiles. Other fungus-like organisms include amoeboid slime moulds. The true fungi are heterotrophic organisms. The cytoplasm is enclosed within a chitinous cell wall. While the majority of species grow as multicellular filaments called hyphae, with all of the hyphae together form a mycelium, some species (such as yeasts) also grow as single cells. Sexual and asexual reproduction of the fungi is commonly via spores, often produced on specialized structures (mushrooms). Some species have lost the ability to form specialized reproductive structures, and propagate solely by vegetative growth. Yeasts, moulds (molds), and mushrooms are examples of fungi. The fungi are more closely related to animals than plants, even though the discipline devoted to the study of fungi, known as mycology, often falls under botany. True fungi lack flagella, but the chytrid ancestors are unicellular organisms that swim using flagella. Occurring worldwide, most fungi are largely invisible to the naked eye, living for the most part in soil, dead matter, and as symbionts of plants, animals, or other fungi. They perform an essential role in many ecosystems in decomposing organic matter and are indispensable in nutrient cycling and exchange. Some fungi become noticeable when fruiting, either as mushrooms or moulds. Many fungal species have long been used as a direct source of food, such as mushrooms and truffles and in production of bread, and in fermentation of various food products, such as wine, beer, and soy sauce. Fungi are sources for antibiotics (such as penicillin) used in medicine and for various enzymes such as cellulases, pectinases, and proteases important for industrial use or as active ingredients of detergents. Many fungi produce bioactive compounds called mycotoxins, such as alkaloids and polyketides that are toxic to animals including humans. Some fungi are used for hallucinogenic effects. Several species of the fungi are significant pathogens of humans and other animals, and losses of crops due to fungal diseases (e.g., rice blast disease) or food spoilage caused by fungi can have a large impact on human food supply and local economies.
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Physical Description

Type Information

Isotype for
Catalog Number: US
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Unknown verification or is "ined."
Preparation: Packet
Collector(s): A. Herre
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Pt. Lobos, San Francisco, Santa Cruz Mts., San Francisco, California, United States, North America
Microhabitat: On rocks above sea, 25-75 feet
Elevation (m): 15 to 30
  • Isotype:
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Isotype for
Catalog Number: US
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Unknown verification or is "ined."
Preparation: Packet
Collector(s): A. Herre
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Pt. Lobos, San Francisco, Santa Cruz Mts., San Francisco, California, United States, North America
Microhabitat: On rocks above sea, 25-75 feet
Elevation (m): 15 to 30
  • Isotype:
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Ecology

Associations

Fungus / feeder
nymph of Aneurus avenius feeds on mycelium of Fungi ss.

Fungus / feeder
adult of Aneurus laevis feeds on mycelium of Fungi ss.

Fungus / feeder
larva of Aphodius plagiatus feeds on small fruitbody of Fungi ss.

Fungus / feeder
nymph of Aradus corticalis feeds on mycelium of Fungi ss.
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Fungus / feeder
Aradus depressus feeds on mycelium of Fungi ss.

Fungus / parasite
hyphal coil of Arthrobotrys anamorph of Arthrobotrys oligospora parasitises live, shrivelled hypha of Fungi ss.

Fungus / parasite
colony of Calcarisporium anamorph of Calcarisporium arbuscula parasitises fruitbody of Fungi ss.

Fungus / feeder
nymph of Drymus brunneus feeds on hyphae of Fungi ss.

Fungus / feeder
adult of Drymus sylvaticus feeds on hyphae of Fungi ss.

Foodplant / mycorrhiza
live root of Goodyera repens is mycorrhizal with live mycelium of Fungi ss.

Foodplant / mycorrhiza
live root of Hammarbya paludosa is mycorrhizal with live mycelium of Fungi ss.

Fungus / feeder
larva of Hoplothrips corticis feeds on Fungi ss.
Remarks: season: 3-10

Foodplant / mycorrhiza
live root of Liparis loeselii is mycorrhizal with live mycelium of Fungi ss.

Fungus / feeder
larva of Megalothrips bonannii feeds on spore of Fungi ss.
Remarks: season: 10

Fungus / parasite
sporangiophore of Mortierella bainieri parasitises mycelium of Fungi ss.

Fungus / internal feeder
larva of Odonteus armiger feeds within subterranean fruitbody of Fungi ss.
Other: sole host/prey

Fungus / parasite
sporangiophore of Piptocephalis repens parasitises mycelium of Fungi ss.

Fungus / feeder
nymph of Scolopostethus pictus feeds on fruitbody (small) of Fungi ss.

Fungus / parasite
scattered, mostly superficial perithecium of Syspastospora parasitica parasitises Fungi ss.
Other: minor host/prey

Fungus / parasite
fruitbody of Tetragoniomyces uliginosus parasitises sclerotium of Fungi ss.

Fungus / parasite
clustered apothecium of Unguiculariopsis ilicincola parasitises Fungi ss.

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Known predators

fungi is prey of:
Insecta
Acari
Collembola
Aves
Mammalia
Hymenoptera
Odocoileus
Synchaeta
Polyarthra
Conochilus
Daphnia
Bosmina
Eudiaptomus
benthic herbivores
Decapoda
detritivorous invertebrates
Actinopterygii
detritus
bacterial and fungal feeders
Anthomyiidae
Diptera
Cyclops
Limnephilus
Mystacides
Lepidurus
Leptophlebia
Nemoura
Gammarus
Holopedium
Eiseniella
Nematoda
macroarthropod f
protozoa
Crustacea
Polychaeta
Bivalvia
Cumacea
Floridichthys carpio
Lophogobius cyprinoides
Entomobrya ligate
Lepidocyrtus cyaneus
Isotoma sensibilis
Pseudistoma sensibilis
Parcoblatta
Canosoma crassus
Thoracophorus costalis
Acritus exiguus
Melanopus
Silvanus embellis
Silvanus planatus
Brontes dubius
Megalodacne fasciata
Lonchaea
Uropoda
Discopoma
Entomobrya corticola
Entomobrya ligata
Entomobrya
Pseudachorutes
Tomocera flavescens
Epiptera
Erchomus ventriculus
Plegaderus
Boros unicolor
Dendroides bicolor
Melanotus
Elater verticinus
Mycetophagus pini
Colopterus semitectus
Stelidota geminata
Bolitotherus cornutus
Platydema flavipes
Rhyncolus
Cossonus corticola
Platypus flavicornis
Xyleborus fitchi
Uropodidae
Chironomidae
Cecidomyidae
Dolichopodidae
Polygyra thyriodes
Zonitoides arboreus
Philomycus carolinensis
Margarops fuscatus
Formicidae
Diplopoda
Thysanoptera
Secernentia nematodes
Hemiptera
Coleoptera
Caracolus caracolla
Philoscia richmondi
Auchenorrhyncha
Sternorrhyncha
Megascolecidae
Oniscidae
Spermophilus lateralis
Glaucomys sabrinus
Glaucomys volans
Sciurus niger
Sciurus carolinensis
Tamias alpinus
Peromyscus gossypinus
Microtus longicaudus
Microtus xanthognathus
Zapus hudsonius
Ursus arctos
Cervus elaphus
Cervus nippon
Rangifer tarandus
Trichosurus caninus
Sus celebensis
Sciurus vulgaris

Based on studies in:
England: Oxfordshire, Wytham Wood (Forest)
Malaysia (Rainforest)
USA: Arizona (Forest, Montane)
USA: Florida, Everglades (Estuarine)
New Zealand (Grassland)
Tibet (Montane)
Puerto Rico, El Verde (Rainforest)
Russia (Agricultural)
Japan (Forest)
Finland (Lake or pond, Pelagic)
Norway: Oppland, Ovre Heimdalsvatn Lake (Lake or pond)
USA: Alaska (Tundra)
unknown (Soil)
USA: North Carolina (Forest, Plant substrate)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • N. N. Smirnov, Food cycles in sphagnous bogs, Hydrobiologia 17:175-182, from p. 179 (1961).
  • D. I. Rasmussen, Biotic communities of Kaibab Plateau, Arizona, Ecol. Monogr. 11(3):228-275, from p. 261 (1941).
  • T. Mizuno and J. I. Furtado, Food chain. In: Tasek Bera, J. I. Furtado and S. Mori, Eds. (Junk, The Hague, Netherlands, 1982), pp. 357-359, from p. 358.
  • Y. Kitazawa, Ecosystem metabolism of the subalpine coniferous forest of the Shigayama IBP area. In: Ecosystem Analysis of the Subalpine Coniferous Forest of Shigayama IBP Area, Central Japan, Y. Kitazawa, Ed. (Japanese Committee for the International Biol
  • L. W. Swan, The ecology of the high Himalayas, Sci. Am. 205:68-78, from pp. 76-77 (October 1961).
  • J. Brown, Ecological investigations of the Tundra biome in the Prudhoe Bay Region, Alaska, Special Report, no. 2, Biol. Pap. Univ. Alaska (1975), from p. xiv.
  • P. Larson, J. E. Brittain, L. Lein, A. Lillehammer and K. Tangen, The lake ecosystem of Ovre Heimdalsvatn, Holarctic Ecology 1:304-320, from p. 311 (1978).
  • W. E. Odum and E. J. Heald, The detritus-based food web of an estuarine mangrove community, In Estuarine Research, Vol. 1, Chemistry, Biology and the Estuarine System, Academic Press, New York, pp. 265-286, from p. 281 (1975).
  • K. Paviour-Smith, The biotic community of a salt meadow in New Zealand, Trans. R. Soc. N.Z. 83(3):525-554, from p. 542 (1956).
  • G. C. Varley, The concept of energy flow applied to a woodland community. In: Animal Populations in Relation to Their Food Resources, A. Watson, Ed. (Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, England, 1970), pp. 389-401, from p. 389.
  • J. L. Harrison, The distribution of feeding habits among animals in a tropical rain forest, J. Anim. Ecol. 31:53-63, from p. 61 (1962).
  • J. Sarvala, Paarjarven energiatalous, Luonnon Tutkija 78(4-5):181-190, from p. 184 (1974).
  • C. Morley, Personal communication (1981).
  • H. E. Savely, 1939. Ecological relations of certain animals in dead pine and oak logs. Ecol. Monogr. 9:321-385, from pp. 335, 353-56, 377-85.
  • Waide RB, Reagan WB (eds) (1996) The food web of a tropical rainforest. University of Chicago Press, Chicago
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at http://animaldiversity.org. http://www.animaldiversity.org
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Known prey organisms

fungi preys on:

Cyrtosperma
Pandanus
Artocarpus altilis
total litter
humus
leaves and trunks
fruit
roots
Decapoda
allochthonous organic matter
detritus
soil organic matter
pollen
dung
Quercus
sapwood
Pinus
live leaves
dead wood
dead leaves
suspended organic matter
dead roots
fruit and seeds
leaves

Based on studies in:
Polynesia (Reef)
unknown (Soil)
Malaysia (Swamp)
England: Oxfordshire, Wytham Wood (Forest)
New Zealand (Grassland)
Puerto Rico, El Verde (Rainforest)
Russia (Agricultural)
USA: Florida, Everglades (Estuarine)
Finland (Lake or pond, Pelagic)
Japan (Forest)
Tibet (Montane)
USA: Alaska (Tundra)
USA: North Carolina (Forest, Plant substrate)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • N. N. Smirnov, Food cycles in sphagnous bogs, Hydrobiologia 17:175-182, from p. 179 (1961).
  • T. Mizuno and J. I. Furtado, Food chain. In: Tasek Bera, J. I. Furtado and S. Mori, Eds. (Junk, The Hague, Netherlands, 1982), pp. 357-359, from p. 358.
  • Y. Kitazawa, Ecosystem metabolism of the subalpine coniferous forest of the Shigayama IBP area. In: Ecosystem Analysis of the Subalpine Coniferous Forest of Shigayama IBP Area, Central Japan, Y. Kitazawa, Ed. (Japanese Committee for the International Biol
  • L. W. Swan, The ecology of the high Himalayas, Sci. Am. 205:68-78, from pp. 76-77 (October 1961).
  • J. Brown, Ecological investigations of the Tundra biome in the Prudhoe Bay Region, Alaska, Special Report, no. 2, Biol. Pap. Univ. Alaska (1975), from p. xiv.
  • W. E. Odum and E. J. Heald, The detritus-based food web of an estuarine mangrove community, In Estuarine Research, Vol. 1, Chemistry, Biology and the Estuarine System, Academic Press, New York, pp. 265-286, from p. 281 (1975).
  • K. Paviour-Smith, The biotic community of a salt meadow in New Zealand, Trans. R. Soc. N.Z. 83(3):525-554, from p. 542 (1956).
  • G. C. Varley, The concept of energy flow applied to a woodland community. In: Animal Populations in Relation to Their Food Resources, A. Watson, Ed. (Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, England, 1970), pp. 389-401, from p. 389.
  • J. L. Harrison, The distribution of feeding habits among animals in a tropical rain forest, J. Anim. Ecol. 31:53-63, from p. 61 (1962).
  • J. Sarvala, Paarjarven energiatalous, Luonnon Tutkija 78(4-5):181-190, from p. 184 (1974).
  • C. Morley, Personal communication (1981).
  • H. E. Savely, 1939. Ecological relations of certain animals in dead pine and oak logs. Ecol. Monogr. 9:321-385, from pp. 335, 353-56, 377-85.
  • W. A. Niering, Terrestrial ecology of Kapingamarangi Atoll, Caroline Islands, Ecol. Monogr. 33(2):131-160, from p. 157 (1963).
  • Waide RB, Reagan WB (eds) (1996) The food web of a tropical rainforest. University of Chicago Press, Chicago
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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Networks share water: fungi
 

Roots of plants transfer water among them via common mycorrhizal networks.

     
  "Plant roots may be linked by shared or common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) that constitute pathways for the transfer of resources among plants…Our results suggest that the movement of water by CMNs is potentially important to plant survival during drought, and that the functional ecophysiological traits of individual mycorrhizal fungi may be a component of this mechanism." (Egerton-Warburton et al. 2007:1473)

"For example, the dominant taxa within the mesocosms, i.e. Boletus, Cortinarius, and Pisolithus, produce hydrophobic mantles and well-differentiated rhizomorphs, two traits considered typical of drought-resistant EM [ectomycorrhizal] (Agerer, 2001). These well-differentiated rhizomorphs transport and hold significant amounts of water in the large diameter vascular vessels (Duddridge et al., 1980; Brownlee et al., 1983; Agerer, 2001, see also Fig. 2). Lactarius produces smooth, undifferentiated rhizomorphs, whereas Cenococcum mycorrhizae form envelopes of external hyphae rather than rhizomorphs (Agerer, 2001) that promote more localized distributions of water (Fig. 4). Further, hyphal anastamosis by AMF may create large interconnected networks with low resistance to solute flow (Giovanetti et al., 2004)." (Egerton-Warburton et al. 2007:1482)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Egerton-Warburton, Louise M.; Querejeta, Jose Ignacio; Allen, Michael F. 2007. Common mycorrhizal networks provide a potential pathway for the transfer of hydraulically lifted water between plants. Journal of Experimental Botany. 58(6): 1473-83.
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Functional adaptation

Fungus provides UV protection: lichens
 

The algal element of lichens is protected from UV radiation by a fungal skin.

     
  "Others [lichens] develop minuscule branches and grow into dense curling thickets a few inches high. Their outer skin is formed by the compacted threads of the fungi and is sufficiently impermeable to prevent the loss of water from the partnership; beneath are the algal cells, kept moist and protected from harmful ultra-violet radiation by the fungal skin; and below them, in the centre of the structure, there is looser tissue, also provided by the fungus, where food and water is stored." (Attenborough 1995:216)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Attenborough, D. 1995. The Private Life of Plants: A Natural History of Plant Behavior. London: BBC Books. 320 p.
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Functional adaptation

Snare captures prey: fungi
 

Filamentous loops of some fungi aid hunting by acting as a snare, releasing a chemical attractant and then swelling to capture prey.

   
  "At least fifty species [of fungi] are active hunters, albeit on a microscopic scale. They develop little hoops on the side of their threads which carry three sensitive pads on their inner margin. These hoops produce a chemical smell with attracts tiny eelworms. If one wriggles into the ring, the pads suddenly swell and the worm is gripped so tightly, it cannot escape. Filaments from the ring then grow into the worm and suck out the contents of its body." (Attenborough 1995:179)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Attenborough, D. 1995. The Private Life of Plants: A Natural History of Plant Behavior. London: BBC Books. 320 p.
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Functional adaptation

Enzyme degrades lignin: Trametes fungi
 

Laccase enzymes of Trametes fungi catalyze the oxidation of organic and inorganic substrates including lignin through direct electron transfer.

     
  "First of all, high-redox-potential laccases are able to oxidize both high- and low-redox-potential substrates, which significantly broadens the degradation ability of the fungi at the beginning of their growth. Secondly, for all high-redox-potential laccases, bioelectroreduction of oxygen on the carbon electrode based on direct electron transfer reactions between the electrode (solid substrate) and the enzymes has been shown, including the two laccases studied in the present work. Indeed, not only laccase, but also all ligninolytic enzymes from white rot fungi (lignin and manganese peroxidases, laccase, and cellobiose dehydrogenase) display the phenomenon of direct electron transfer." (Shleev et al. 2007:46)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Shleev, S.; Nikitina, O.; Christenson, A.; Reimann, C. T.; Yaropolov, A. I.; Ruzgas, T.; Gorton, L. 2007. Characterization of two new multiforms of Trametes pubescens laccase. Bioorganic Chemistry. 35(1): 35-49.
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Functional adaptation

Pigments provide strength: fungi
 

The hyphae of rock inhabiting fungi are strengthened and better able to grow in crevices due to melanin pigments.

   
  "Melanin pigmentation of rock-inhabiting fungi confers extra-mechanical strength to the hyphae that are then better able to grow into crevices (Dornieden et al., 1997; Sterflinger and Krumbein, 1997)." (Gorbushina 2007:1619)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Gorbushina, A. A. 2007. Life on the rocks. Environmental Microbiology. 9(7): 1613-1631.
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Functional adaptation

Breaking down crude oil: fungi
 

The metabolism of Aspergillus and other microscopic fungi is capable of breaking down hydrocarbons in crude oil.

   
  "Both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms tend to colonise oil pipelines and oil and fuel storage installations. Complex microbial communities consisting of both hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms and bacteria using the metabolites of the former form an ecological niche where they thrive." (Yemashova et al. 2007:315)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Yemashova NA; Murygina VP; Zhukov DV; Zakharyantz AA; Gladchenko MA; Appanna V; Kalyuzhnyi SV. 2007. Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil derived products: a review. Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology. 6(4): 315-337.
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Functional adaptation

Digesting various substances: fungi
 

Various fungi can digest petroleum, plastic, iron, and other hazardous waste products.

         
  "The variety of substances that fungi can digest is extraordinary. Some can live on petroleum, others on the thin films that coat lenses. Silica, magnesium, iron, even plastic are all consumed by one kind or another." (Attenborough 1995:179)

  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Attenborough, D. 1995. The Private Life of Plants: A Natural History of Plant Behavior. London: BBC Books. 320 p.
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Wikipedia

Berggrenia

Berggrenia is a genus of fungi in the Ascomycota phylum. The relationship of this taxon to other taxa within the class is unknown (incertae sedis), and it has not yet been placed with certainty into any class, order, or family.[1]

See also[edit]

List of Ascomycota genera incertae sedis

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lumbsch TH, Huhndorf SM. (December 2007). "Outline of Ascomycota – 2007". Myconet (The Field Museum, Department of Botany, Chicago, USA) 13: 1–58. 
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Polystomellina

Polystomellina is a genus of fungi in the Microthyriaceae family; according to the 2007 Outline of Ascomycota, the placement in this family is uncertain.[1] This is a monotypic genus, containing the single species Polystomellina didymopanacis.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lumbsch TH, Huhndorf SM. (December 2007). "Outline of Ascomycota – 2007". Myconet (The Field Museum, Department of Botany, Chicago, USA) 13: 1–58. 
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