The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Cheng, L. (2015). Aphididae. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Heie, O. 1980. The Aphidoidea (Hemiptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. I. General part. The families Mindaridae, Hormaphididae, Thelaxidae, Anoeciidae, and Pemphigidae. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica. Vol. 9.
  • Heie, O. 1994. Aphid ecology in the past and a new view on the evolution of Macrosiphini. in Individuals, Populations and Patterns in Ecology. (eds. S. R. Leather et al.) Intercept, Andover.
  • McGavin, George C. 1993. Bugs of the World. 192
  • Poole, Robert W., and Patricia Gentili, eds. 1997. Homoptera. Nomina Insecta Nearctica: A Check List of the Insects of North America, vol. 4: Non-Holometabolous Orders. 249-489


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!