The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Blackman, R.L. and V.F. Eastop. 1984. Aphids on the world's crops: an identification and information guide. Wiley, Chichester.
  • Blackman, R.L. and V.F. Eastop. 1994. Aphids on the world's trees: an identification and information guide. CAB International in association with the Natural History Museum, Wallingford.
  • Dixon, A. F. G. 1985. Aphid Ecology. Glasgow: Blackie & Son Limited.
  • Dixon, A. F. G., P. Kindlmann, J. Leps, & J. Holman. 1987. Why there are so few species of aphids, especially in the tropics. American Nautralist 129:580-592.
  • Heie, O. E. 1980. The Aphidoidea (Hemiptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. 1. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica, 9.
  • Heie, O. E. 1987. Palaeontology and phylogeny. Aphids: Their biology, natural enemies, and control, vol 2A. Eds. A. K. Minks and P. Harrewijn. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
  • Heie, O. E. 1994a. Why are there so few aphid species in the temperte areas of the southern hemisphere? European Journal of Entomology 91:127-133.
  • Heie, O. E. 1994b. Aphid ecology in the past and a new view on the evolution of Macrosiphini. In Individuals, Population and Patterns in Ecology. Eds. S. R. Leather et al. Intercept, Andover. pp. 409-418.
  • McGavin, George C. 1993. Bugs of the World. 192
  • Minks, A. K. and P. Harrewijn, eds. 1987. Aphids: Their biology, natural enemies and control. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
  • Moran, N. A. 1992. The evolution of aphid life cycles. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 37:321-348.
  • Poole, Robert W., and Patricia Gentili, eds. 1997. Homoptera. Nomina Insecta Nearctica: A Check List of the Insects of North America, vol. 4: Non-Holometabolous Orders. 249-489
  • von Dohlen, C. D. and N. A. Moran. 1995. Molecular phylogeny of the Homoptera: a paraphyletic taxon. Journal of Molecular Evolution. 41:211-223.


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