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Overview

Brief Summary

The cod family forms a large family of predator fish. Thirty species of cod are found in European waters, one of which lives in fresh water (the burbot). Most species have the characteristic beard on their chin. They use this to search the bottom for fod. Therefore, it is logical that these species live near the sea bottom, although whiting, coal fish and Norway pout prefer swimming in open waters. Cod species are often caught; worldwide, they form at least one seventh of the total amount of fish caught yearly. Only herring are caught in larger amounts.
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Ecology

Associations

Known predators

Gadidae (Cod) is prey of:
Gadidae
Melanogrammus aeglefinus
Hemitripterus americanus
Leucoraja erinacea
Leucoraja ocellata
Amblyraja radiata
Squalus acanthias
Lophius americanus
Cynoscion
Pomatomus saltatrix

Phocidae
Chondrichthyes
Homo sapiens

Based on studies in:
USA, Northeastern US contintental shelf (Coastal)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • Link J (2002) Does food web theory work for marine ecosystems? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 230:1–9
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Known prey organisms

  • Link J (2002) Does food web theory work for marine ecosystems? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 230:1–9
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 1443
Specimens with Sequences: 1343
Specimens with Barcodes: 1162
Species: 19
Species With Barcodes: 19
Public Records: 613
Public Species: 18
Public BINs: 17
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Fish company

A fish company is a company which specializes in the processing of fish products. Fish that are processed by a fish company include cod, hake, haddock, tuna, herring, mackerel, salmon and pollock.

The United States, China, Peru and Chile have the highest number of fish companies specializing in fish processing. The Northwest Pacific Ocean is considered to be the most vital fishing zone in terms of volume caught and processed and that is why the United States is considered the number one fish producing country.[citation needed]

In developing countries, the livelihood of over 500 million people depends on fish and seafood products.

Processing of fish[edit]

Stages in the processing of fish species are:

The steps that are applied by fish companies in the production of fish are:

  • pretreatment
  • filleting
  • grading and trimming
  • package
  • Storage'

Fish processing can occur on the boat and fish processing vessels, and at fish processing plants.

Processing of whitefish[edit]

Whitefish is a fishery term used to define species with fins such as cod, hake, whiting, haddock and pollock. White fish has dry and white flesh and is easy to fillet.

Unlike oily fish, whitefish contains oil in their liver and therefore the fish can be gutted, trimmed and de-headed immediately after being caught, that is on the fishing vessel. After this process, the fish are kept in boxes and kept frozen by placing it on ice.

Upon arrival at the processing plant the fish are freed from ice and kept in chilled storage so as to preserve the fish for further processing. The fish are cleaned for blood, bones fins, black membrane, and fleas, loose fish scales, de-headed and graded according to the required size. This is known as the pretreatment and trimming stage.

The filleting process of the fish starts after the pretreatment and trimming stage. Fish filleting is either done by mechanical filleting machine or by hand. The machine which is used for the production of fish fillet has cutting knives which cut the fillet from the backbone and take out the collarbone. The filleting department and the pretreatment department are always separated from each other because ensures that workers from non-sterile pretreatment area are not coming across the hygienic filleting care area.[1]

The trimming department is controlled by operational inspectors to ensure that the company has met the safety principles and procedures. If defects are found, corrective actions are taken by the food safety management. This is known as Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP).

After the filleting process, skinning of the fish takes place and then the fish fillet is processed into end products such as frozen fish fillet, moulded loins fillet or smoked fish fillet.

The fish fillet may be divided into fish loins, fish fillet tail, etc. It is then packed in blocks and kept in cold storage.

Processing of oily fish[edit]

Oily fish have oils throughout their tissues and around the gut. Examples of oily fish are salmon, tuna, mackerel, herring and anchovy.

Oily fish is not headed and gutted on the fishing vessel because it contains oil and this can be hazardous as it will lead to oily surfaces. Thus, to minimize risk, oily fish are processed at the fish processing plant itself. The filleting process is almost the same the whitefish but oily fish is mostly used as canned fish.

Filleting by hand[edit]

In some fish companies, fish filleting is done manually. This way of fish processing involves high labor costs.

During the processing of fish fillet, the stages are same as the processing of whitefish but the fish are filleted by hand rather than machine. The fish is headed, gutted, de-iced and de-scaled. It is then graded and filleted by hand. After the processing phase, the fish fillet is trimmed for blood, bones fins, black membrane, fleas, loose fish scales and sorted. It is then packed and kept frozen in cold storage.[2]

Food safety[edit]

Fish companies need food safety certification to ensure that the processing has been carried out in a healthy manner. One of the common certifications is Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points) (HACCP).

HACCP is a system which identifies hazards and implements measures for their control. It was developed in 1960 by NASA to ensure food safety for the manned space program. The main objectives of NASA were to prevent food safety problems and control food borne diseases. HACCP has been used by the food industry since the late 1970.

HACCP is certified by the:

  • FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization)
  • Codex Alimentarius (a commission of the United Nations),
  • FDA (US Food and Drug Administration),
  • European Union
  • WHO (World Health Organization)

There are seven elements to HACCP:

  • conduct a hazard analysis.
  • after assessing all the processing steps, the Critical Control Point (CCP) is controlled. CCP are points which determine and control significant hazards in a food manufacturing process.
  • set up critical limits in order to ensure that the hazard identified is being controlled effectively.
  • establish a system so as to monitor the CCP.
  • establish corrective actions where the critical limit has not been met. Actions need to be taken which can be on a short or long-term basis. Records must be kept.
  • establish authentication procedures so as to confirm if the principles imposed by HACCP documents are being respected and all records are being taken.
  • analyze if the HACCP plans are working effectively.

Sustainability[edit]

Fish consumption is increasing worldwide. Millions of people are dependent to fish products as fish consists of protein and is a good meal for health. In order to safeguard fish stocks, fish companies have to join certifications which will contribute to sustainable fishing.

Common certifications are:

Marine Stewardship Council[edit]

Marine Stewardship council is a non-profit organization that works with fisheries and seafood companies in order to contribute to the marine environment by recognizing and rewarding sustainable fishing practices. MSC also educates the population about the importance of choosing sustainable seafood and how they can contribute to the marine ecosystem.[3]

The MSC program is based on three main principles:

  • managing fish stock
  • minimize the impacts of the ecosystem
  • good fishery management system

Fish Company acquires the MSC eco-label only if the seafood product is traceable from boat to plate. This is called the Chain of Custody. The traceability process ensures that consumers are getting what they are paying for, which means that the seafood they are purchasing has been fished sustainably. The bar codes on the fish products can be traced back from consumers to supplier in case of any problem related to the consumed product.

The MSC chain of custody certification is validated on a three years basis so as to ensure that the fish company continues to catch fish in sustainable ways and their loyalty to sustainable seafood has been maintained.

Nowadays, customers find the MSC blue label on more than 600 products worldwide. There has also been 76 percent increase in worldwide sales of MSC labeled products as compared to 2009.

Friend of the Sea[edit]

Friend of the Sea is an international non-governmental organization which seeks to safeguard the marine ecosystem by working with fisheries and fish companies. Friend of the Sea works in conjunction with the article 30 FAO Guidelines for Ecolabelling of Marine Fisheries.[4]

The article states that seafood products can only be certified if the targeted species is not over-exploited. To achieve Friend of the Sea certification, fisheries need to abide with the following criteria:

  • marine species should not be over-fished
  • the method of fishing should not impact the seafloor
  • the method of fishing should generate a maximum of 8% discards
  • all laws and regulations should be respected
  • endangered species should not be by-catch

References[edit]

Usage[edit]

See also[edit]

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Gadidae

The Gadidae are a family of marine fish, included in the order Gadiformes, known as the cods, codfishes or true cods.[2] It contains several commercially important fishes, including the cod, haddock, whiting, and pollock.

Most gadid species are found in temperate waters of the Northern Hemisphere, with some exceptions. They are generally medium-sized fish, and are distinguished by the presence of three dorsal fins on the back and two anal fins on the underside. Most species have barbels on their chins, which they use while browsing on the sea floor. Gadids are carnivorous, feeding on smaller fish and crustaceans.[1]

Gadids are highly prolific, producing several million eggs at each spawning. This contributes to their high population numbers, which, in turn, makes commercial fishing relatively easy.[3]

Concepts differ about the contents of the family Gadidae. The system followed by FishBase includes a dozen genera.[1] Alternatively, also fishes in the current Lotidae (with burbot, cusk) and Phycidae (hakes) have been included in Gadidae, as its subfamilies Lotinae and Phycidae.[4][2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2008). "Gadidae" in FishBase. December 2008 version.
  2. ^ a b "Gadidae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved June 2012. 
  3. ^ Cohen, Daniel M. (1998). Paxton, J. R. & Eschmeyer, W. N., ed. Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 130–131. ISBN 0-12-547665-5. 
  4. ^ Nelson, J. S. 2006. Fishes of the World, 4th edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
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Fish fillet processor

Fish fillet buyers can find on this site a list of locations where fish processing industries are mostly found, starting from the largest fish producing countries. These are the:

Furthermore, these countries also account for almost half of the global processed fish products. Moreover, the Northwest Pacific region is considered to be the key fishing zone. This area has recorded the highest catch in terms of volume and processing of caught fish.

It has been reported that around 30% of fish used for commercial use are marketed as fresh fish for consumptions. The remaining is generally supplied as frozen fish fillet and frozen fish. Nowadays, most developing countries are consuming fish fillets or fish as ready-made meals and expediency food products. In addition, the end product of the processed fish fillet can be fresh, frozen, as moulded loins, canned fish, fish oil and meals, or fish protein products.

Species that are usually processed by fish processing companies include Cod, Hake, Haddock, Tuna, Herring, Mackerel, Salmon and Pollock.

Nowadays, fish processing industries are very well-known internationally. Each fish fillet processing industries are relatively different in terms of productivity, types of operations and yield. However, around 90% of oceanic fish are used for fish productions and the remaining 10% accounts for fresh fish and fish from aqua-cultural production. Most fish fillet processing industries are found near the commercial fishing zone. But, in certain regions, fish that are caught for commercial use, are transported or exported to other areas for processing.[1]

Contents

Filleting procedures of fish fillet

The fish processing procedures can start either on the fishing vessel or at the plants. Most of the fish processing stages usually take place at the plants but in certain cases where big Sea fleets operates; some processing steps can be take place at Sea. For example, the fish are headed and gutted on the board fishing vessel itself.

Nonetheless, the process involved in filleting of whitefish is moderately different as compared to the filleting of oily fish.

Processing of whitefish

Filleting by mechanical filleting machine

The production of fish fillet involves a number of steps that are needed to be followed. It starts from pretreatment, filleting of the fish, grading and trimming of the fish fillet till package and storage of the fish fillet. Each of the stages mentioned above take place in different departments in the fish processing plants. [2]

Whitefish such as hake, Cod and Haddock has soft white flesh and thus make it easy to fillet. The fish is gutted, trimmed and de-headed. Sometimes this process takes place in the fishing vessel itself. The fish are then place on ice and kept in certain type of boxes before being delivered to the fish processing plants. Upon the arrival at the processing plant, the fish is de-iced and placed in chilled storage until the next processing stage is started. Now, the next step to follow is the pretreatment stage. Here, the fish are trimmed for blood, bones fins, black membrane, and fleas, loose fish scales, de-headed and graded according to the required size. The trimming department is strictly controlled by operators. Here, the operators carefully examine the fish fillets in order to ensure that safety procedures have been applied effectively. If some certain defects are detected, strict measures are taken by the food safety management. This is known as Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP).

After the pretreatment stage, the fish are filleted. This is usually done by mechanical filleting machine but in some processing industries, all fish are hand filleted. Nevertheless, industries which use mechanical filleting machine, the filleting department are generally separated from the pretreatment department in order to ensure that workers from non-sterile pretreatment area are not passing through the sterile filleting care area. The machine which is used for the production of fish fillet, consist of cutting knives which cut the fillet from the backbone and take out the collarbone. Skinning of the fish fillet is done at this stage.

After completion of all the above, steps, the fish fillet is processed into different types of end products. This is done as per customers requirements. The fish fillet may be cut into different weight and divided into fish loins, fish fillet tail, etc. It is then packed individually in blocks and kept in cold storage.

Filleting by hand

In certain fish processing industries, fish filleting are done manually. This way of fish processing involves high labor costs as industries need to employ more people to work in their plant. An example of a fish fillet processor in Namibia which apply this method of filleting is Seawork Fish Processors Ltd. Every single fish processed at the plant is being hand filleted so as to ensure that the highest quality of fish products being delivered to its customers. [3]

During the processing of fish fillet, the fish is headed, gutted, de-iced and de-scaled. It is then graded and filleted by hand. After the processing phase, the fish fillet is trimmed for blood, bones fins, black membrane, fleas, loose fish scales and sorted. It is then packed and kept frozen in cold storage. [4]

Processing of Oily fish

Oily fish are species that have oils throughout their tissues and as well as in the belly cavity around the gut. Up to 30% of oil is found in the fillet of the fish species but this varies between species. Examples of Oily fish include Salmon, Tuna, Mackerel, Herring and anchovy.

Due to the extensive oil content found in these species, the fish is not headed and gutted on the fishing vessel. This is by far avoided in order to reduce the risk related with Oily surface. The oily skin of the fish is kept as it retains the quality of the flesh. The filleting process is almost the same the whitefish but oily fish is mostly used as canned fish.

Monitoring of fish fillet processing

Fish processing highly involves very strict controls and measurements in order to ensure that all processing stages have been carried out hygienically. Thus, all fish processing companies are highly recommended to join a certain type of food safety system. One of the certifications that are commonly known is the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP).

HACCP is a system which identifies hazards and implements measures for their control. It was first developed in 1960 by NASA to ensure food safety for the manned space program. The main objectives of NASA were to prevent food safety problems and control food borne diseases. HACCP has been widely used by food industry since the late 1970 and now it is internationally recognized as the best system for ensuring food safety.[5]

HACCP is endorsed by the:

There are seven basic principles that must be followed which are:

Principle 1: Conduct a hazard analysis.

Principle 2: After assessing all the processing steps, the Critical control point (CCP) is controlled. CCP are points which determine and control significant hazards in a food manufacturing process.

Principle 3: Set up critical limits in order to ensure that the hazard identified is being controlled effectively.

Principle 4: Establish a system so as to monitor the CCP.

Principle 5: Establish corrective actions where the critical limit has not been met. Appropriate actions need to be taken which can be on a short or long-term basis. All records must be sustained accurately.

Principle 6: Establish authentication procedures so as to confirm if the principles imposed by HACCP documents are being respected effectively and all records are being taken.

Principle 7: Analyze if the HACCP plan are working effectively.


References

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Hake fillet

Hake fillet is a type of fish product made from hake which is largely used in Spanish cuisine. Hake has soft white flesh which makes it easy to fillet. During the production of hake fillet, there are three steps that are particularly followed by hake processing industries. Firstly the headed and gutted hake fish are defrosted. Secondly, the scales found on the hake are removed and finally they are graded and filleted.[1]

Hake fillet is available in different gradings such as 2 - 4 Oz (70-90 g), 4 - 6 Oz (90-110 g), 6 - 8 Oz (110-130 g), 8 - 10 Oz (130-150 g), 10 - 12 Oz (150-170 g) and 12+ Oz (170-220 g).After the production stage, the hake fillet is checked for blood, bones fins, black membrane, fleas, loose fish scales, and sorted. It is then packed and kept frozen in order to achieve a product temperature of approximately -18°C.[2]

Contents

Hake fish

Hake fish comes from the same family as Cod and Haddock. It is a small fish of averaging 1 to 8 lb in weight, but which has been known to grow up to 60 lbs.[3] Hake can grow up to 1 meter in length and their lifespan can be around 14 years.However, they live into shallow water ranging from 200 to 350 meter depth. Hake species stay in deep sea water during the day and they come to the middle depth during the night. They are actually undiscerning predators which feeds on species found near or on the bottom of the sea. The males and females hake fish look almost the same and are not easily differentiated.[4]

After spawning, the hake eggs float on the surface of the sea and then the larvae develop which later becomes free swimming in the upper levels of the sea. After a certain period of time, the baby hake then migrate to the bottom of the sea which is approximately less than 200meter depth.[4]

A total of 12 hake fish species are known. These are the:

Not all of them are viewed as an important aspect for commercial use but the species that have grown really fast and have recorded as really high captures are the Deep-water and Shallow-water hake.

Fisheries

The main catching method of deep-water hake is primarily trawling and shallow-water hake is mostly caught by inshore trawl and longlining. Hake fish are mostly found in the Southwest Atlantic (Argentina and Uruguay), Southeast Pacific (Chile and Peru), Southeast Atlantic (Namibia and South Africa, New Zealand) and Mediterranean and Black Sea (Italy, Spain, Greece and France).

Over-exploitation of Hake fish

Due to over-exploitation, the commercial catch of Argentinean hake fish has declined drastically. About 80% of adult hake has apparently disappeared from the Argentinean Sea. It has been reported that Argentinean hake will not actually disappear from the sea but the stock will be so low that profitability will be almost zero and it will be ineffective for commercial use.[5] In addition, this is causing massive dilemma in the employment sector as many people are losing their job in the fishing industries. On the other hand, prices of Argentinean hake are rising due to the scarcity of the product. Based on this fact, exports are decreasing sharply which is ultimately affecting the economic factor of the country.[6]

On the contrary, in Chile exports of seafood especially Chilean hake have decreased dramatically. The exportation of hake fish has decreased by almost 19 percent. The main of this decline is due to the earthquake and tsunami that has hit Chile in February 2010. These disasters have destroyed most processing plants specially manufacturing companies dealing in the production of fishmeal and frozen fillets.[7]

When it comes to European Hake, research has shown that catches are well below the historical level. This has ultimately led to depletion of European hake in the Mediterranean and Black Sea. However, there are different factors that might have caused this declination. It can be; too high Total Annual Catch, unsustainable fishing, ecological problems, juvenile catch or non registered catch.

Now, the only Hake species which is considered not to be over-fished is Cape hake which is found in Zone 47-Namibia. This has been stated by the Worldwide Fund.[8] Namibia is the only country which has increased its quota for hake fish, resulting from 130,000 tonnes in 2009 to 145,000 tonnes in 2010.[9] Furthermore, the Local Ministry of Fisheries has bounded to very strict rules and regulations regarding the catch of hake. For example, the closed seasons for hake fish lasts for around two months, September and October depending on the level of stock. This rule has been applied in order to ensure that regrowth of hake fish population are being allowed. Supplement restriction that has been imposed is; trawling for Hake is not allowed in less than 200 m depth so as not to affect the natural habitat of non-targeted species and to minimize by-catch.

Sustainable consumption of Hake fish

Nowadays, seafood has become one of the main sources for consumers around the world. Seafood products should be regarded as a very significant aspect as it provides a source of revenue to around 200 million people globally.[10]

In order to safeguard the livelihood of fish species especially hake, all hake fishing industries need to join a certain type of certification programs. Some of the certifications that are mostly known are:

  • Marine Stewardship Council
  • Friend of the Sea
  • Naturland

Marine Stewardship Council

Marine Stewardship council is one of the best certification programs known worldwide. It is a non-profit organization that seeks to contribute to the marine environment by recognizing and rewarding sustainable fishing practices for fisheries and seafood companies. Its aim is to also educate the public about the importance of choosing sustainable seafood and converting the seafood market into a sustainable source.[11]

The MSC program is based on three main principles:

  1. Managing fish stock
  2. Minimize the impacts of the ecosystem
  3. Good fishery management system

The use of the MSC eco-label on seafood products is only permitted if the product is traceable from sea to plate. This is known as the Chain of Custody.[12] The traceability process ensures that consumers are getting seafood that is legally sustainable and marine environment has been respected accordingly. The MSC chain of custody certification is validated on a three years basis so as to ensure that the company continues to catch fish in sustainable ways and their loyalty to sustainable seafood has been maintained.

Seawork Fish Processors (Pty) Ltd is a fishing and processing company based in Walvis Bay, Namibia specializing in the catching, value adding and marketing hake fish products such as hake fillet, frozen hake fillet, hake H&g, etc. Having more than 10 years experience in the fishing and processing industry, Seawork is recognized universally. Seawork is a MSC certified member and this entitles them to handle MSC certified fish from sustainable resources all over the globe.[13] Furthermore, it ensures that every product leaving the factory can be traced from raw material level to the individual packing and sealing the product itself.[14]

Nowadays, retailers and consumers are becoming more and more aware of sustainable seafood. Hypermarkets like Sainsbury and Mark & Spencer in UK, are deciding to have 100% certified fish on their shelves. Now, customers can find the MSC blue label on more than 600 products worldwide. Moreover, in 2010, the worldwide sales of MSC labeled products have increased by 76 percent as compared to 2009. As consumers and retailers are willing to pay more for sustainable seafood, sustainability should be regarded as a vital aspect.[15]

Friend of the Sea

Friend of the Sea is a non-governmental organization working with fisheries and seafood companies in turn to safeguard the marine environment. It is an international project of certification for seafood products initiated from sustainable fisheries.[16] Basically, Friend of the Sea works in line with the article 30 FAO Guidelines for Ecolabelling of Marine Fisheries, which states that seafood products can only be certified the targeted species is not over-exploited. In order, to achieve the Friend of the Sea certification, fisheries need to abide with certain criteria which are:

• Targeted species should not be over-exploited

• Method of fishing should not impact the seafloor

• Method of fishing should generate a maximum of 8% discards

• All laws and regulations should be respected effectively

• Endangered species should not be by-catch

If all these criteria are met accordingly, the fisheries will attain the certification.[17]

Naturland

Naturland is an association found in Germany who started years back to offer Naturland certification to operators who are involved in the production foodstuffs, Textiles, Cosmetics products, aquaculture, forest management and sustainable fisheries captures. The association also works with international operators who want to have a Naturland label in their products.[18] When it comes to sustainable fishery captures, the main objective of Naturland is the sustainable use of resources, in ecological, social, and economical respect.

Commercial use of Hake fish

The demand for hake has been conventionally the most in Europe. Hake has been primarily divided into three principle levels which are fresh hake fish, frozen hake fish and frozen hake fillet. The fresh hake fish is mainly supplied by European production and imports. Frozen hake fish and frozen hake fillet are effectively supplied by imports and European processing companies.

Spain has been recorded as the highest consumption of hake fish as compared to other European countries with a yearly consumption of 6 kg/person. Nevertheless, hake and other fish consumption have recently declined during the last decade but this still account for about 1/3 of the total fish consumed in Spain. The total hake consumption in Spain is around one half of the total European hake fish consumption. Other countries which follow are; Portugal, France and Italy.[19]

In Spain, fresh hake fish are mostly purchased by restaurants through retailers. Nonetheless, processed hake products are distributed by hake fish wholesalers. Fishmongers, public markets and hypermarkets sell all kind of hake fish available. It can be frozen hake fillet, hake fillet skin-on, and hake fillet skin-ff or hake h&g.

In France, most fish are generally purchased in Hypermarkets but for hake fish, it is an exception. Only 50% of sales represent the whole market. In fact, due to lack of European hake fish, French wholesalers purchase fresh hake from external countries such as Argentina and Namibia which are then directly exported to Spain. Fresh hake fish is mostly exported to Spain.

In Italy most hotels, restaurants, supermarkets, hypermarkets and institutions sector plays an important role in seafood consumption. However, frozen hake fillet are mostly purchased by retailers and wholesalers which are then sold in Supermarkets and hypermarkets. Restaurants and hotels are the primary location for seafood consumption. Statistic has shown that household purchases of fresh hake fillet are higher than others.

Imports and exports of Hake fillet

Frozen hake fillet is the main product that is exported from Argentina. But due to the hectic situation that Argentinean companies are going through, export of hake fillet has been dropped by 3% and 22% in terms of volume and value respectively. The main importers of hake fillet for the year 2010 were Brazil (46%; volume and 46%; value) and United States followed by Italy. Imports of hake fillet to Brazil has significantly raised by +69% in volume and +38% in value. Despite of this growth, hake fillet is the only one that has shown a decrease in the volume of exports in Argentina.[6]

The main importers of hake fillet from Uruguay are Italy, Russia, Germany, Holland and France but nowadays exports from Uruguay has declined sharply due to the disaster occurred in February.

Buying of Hake fish

Hake fish is sold in different types such as frozen, fillets or steaks, fresh, smoked or salted. When buying hake fillet or any other type of hake fish products, consumers need to purchase hake with white flesh that is free of signs of dryness, grayness or browning. It should have a seawater fresh smell.[3]

Cooking of Hake fillet

Year ago, fishermen from the area of Bay of Biscay (Basque) brought the hake fish into Spanish gastronomy. An example is; hake in potato casserole (Galician style). The commonly known hake fish recipe from this country is called "Koskera,” which is made with made with a variety of vegetables like peas, asparagus vegetables such as peas, asparagus, etc.

Hake fillet is well known for its delicious texture and light flavor in many European countries as well as the United States. Hake fish is very easy to cook as it contains very few bones. Like many other types of freshwater and saltwater fish, hake fish also can be trimmed and filleted for a variety of culinary preparation. It is versatile and generate ideal results either it is baked, poached, sautéed, grilled or roasted. It is even used in soups in some cultures. However, Hake fillet is ideal for broiling in oven or cooking on a grill.[20]

In addition, it is possible to make steaks from hake. Hake fillet steaks can be prepared in much the same way as Salmon. Hake fillet steaks along with lemon or lime juice, some spices and herbs can be an ideal dish for lunch or dinner. Hake fillet can be prepared in many different ways; it can be from a more formal meal to a simple meal for a casual gathering around the table.[20]

Nutrition

People who are health conscious and who want to avoid cholesterol, preparing hake fillet can be an excellent meal as compared to red meat. Research has shown that red meat contains very high amount of fats and cholesterol whereas the fatty oil found in hake fillet is considered to have good cholesterol and low in fat content.[20]

Hake fillet is an excellent source of protein which makes digestion easier and is also high in Omega-3. Based on the fact that Omega-3 is not manufactured by the body, consumption of hake fillet or any other hake fish products is considered to be an essential component.

There are two type of Omega-3 fatty acids found in hake fish which are: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and, Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Most of the fish we consume contains a majority of 18% of EPA and 12% DHA.[21]

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a type of fatty acid found in fish such as hake. It is the most abundant omega-3 fatty acid found in the brain and retina of human body. Approximately 40% and 60% of the Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid are found in the brain and retina respectively. Moreover, DHA has the largest effect on the brain. In the human body, DHA is either present by the diet or through Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).[22]

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is also a type of fatty acid found in fish. In the human body, EPA is obtained by the consumption of hake fish or fish oil In particular; this fatty acid is believed to have valuable importance in mental conditions such as Schizophrenia and also helps the reduction of developing certain types of cancer.

Scientists have proved that consumption of hake fish at regular interval in a meal decreases the risk of getting heart attack than those who don’t. Hake fish contains also a high amount of vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 which are essential for human body.[23]

References

  1. ^ Seawork hake fillet fish processing. "Seawork fish processing: Hake Fillet distributor, fish hake fillet". Seawork.com.na. http://www.seawork.com.na/hake-fillet-skinon.html. Retrieved 2010-09-15. 
  2. ^ Seawork hake fillet fish processing. "Seawork fish processing: Hake fillet Skinless, fish hake fillet". Seawork.com.na. http://www.seawork.com.na/hake-fillet-skinless.html. Retrieved 2010-09-15. 
  3. ^ a b "Hake - all about fish on The Worldwide Gourmet". Theworldwidegourmet.com. http://www.theworldwidegourmet.com/products/fish/hake/. Retrieved 2010-09-15. 
  4. ^ a b "South Africa hake trawl — MSC". Msc.org. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/south-atlantic-indian-ocean/south-africa-hake-trawl-fishery. Retrieved 2010-09-15. 
  5. ^ "Argentine hake fishery and markets at risk because of over-fishing, says NGO — MercoPress". En.mercopress.com. 2010-03-22. http://en.mercopress.com/2010/03/22/argentine-hake-fishery-and-markets-at-risk-because-of-over-fishing-says-ngo. Retrieved 2010-09-15. 
  6. ^ a b "Fao Globefish". Globefish.org. http://www.globefish.org/hake-january-2010.html. Retrieved 2010-09-15. 
  7. ^ "Worldnews - Sharp decline in exports to the south-central area". FIS. 2010-08-27. http://www.fis.com/fis/worldnews/worldnews.asp?monthyear=&day=27&id=37905&l=e&special=&ndb=1%20target=. Retrieved 2010-09-15. 
  8. ^ "WWF-Deutschland: Einkaufsratgeber Fische & Meeresfrüchte". Wwf.de. http://www.wwf.de/themen/meere-kuesten/fischerei/wwf-fischfuehrer/. Retrieved 2010-09-15. 
  9. ^ http://www.namibian.com.na/index.php?id=28&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=65437&no_cache=1
  10. ^ "Marine Stewardship Council: Sustainable Seafood for Everyone | Green Marketing TV". Greenmarketing.tv. 2010-04-28. http://www.greenmarketing.tv/marine-stewardship-council-sustainable-seafood-for-everyone. Retrieved 2010-09-15. 
  11. ^ 14:14 (2010-04-14). "Fairfood site: Fairfood's Solution of the Month II - Marine Stewardship Council". Fairfood.org. http://www.fairfood.org/blog/blog-post/2010/04/14/fairfoods-solution-of-the-month-ii-marine-stewardship-council/. Retrieved 2010-09-15. 
  12. ^ "MSC chain of custody standard for seafood traceability — MSC". Msc.org. http://www.msc.org/about-us/standards/standards/chain-of-custody. Retrieved 2010-09-15. 
  13. ^ Seawork hake fillet fish processing. "Seawork fish processing: hake fish fillet Sustainability". Seawork.com.na. http://www.seawork.com.na/sustainability.html. Retrieved 2010-09-15. 
  14. ^ Seawork hake fillet fish processing. "Seawork fish distributors supply fish fillet worldwide". Seawork.com.na. http://www.seawork.com.na/fish-processing.html. Retrieved 2010-09-15. 
  15. ^ "People with Opinion". FIS. http://www.fis.com/fis/people/index.asp?article_id=9&l=e. Retrieved 2010-09-15. 
  16. ^ "Sustainable Seafood :". Friend of the Sea. http://www.friendofthesea.org/about-us.asp. Retrieved 2010-09-15. 
  17. ^ "Sustainable Seafood :". Friend of the Sea. http://www.friendofthesea.org/fisheries.asp. Retrieved 2010-09-15. 
  18. ^ IMO Institut für Marktoekologie. "IMO". Imo.ch. http://www.imo.ch/imo_services_organic_naturland_en,5313,998.html. Retrieved 2010-09-15. 
  19. ^ "Microsoft Word - llucjordi.doc" (PDF). http://www.gemub.com/pdf/llucjordi.pdf. Retrieved 2010-09-15. 
  20. ^ a b c "What is Hake?". Wisegeek.com. http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-hake.htm. Retrieved 2010-09-15. 
  21. ^ "Seawork, hake fillet, frozen hake fillets worldwide supplier". Seawork.blogspot.com. 2008-01-30. http://www.seawork.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2010-09-15. 
  22. ^ "Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)". Umm.edu. 2008-09-18. http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/eicosapentaenoic-acid-000301.htm. Retrieved 2010-09-15. 
  23. ^ "Eicosapentaenoic Acid - Eicosapentaenoic Acid - Potential Anti-cancer". Diet and Health.net. http://www.diet-and-health.net/Supplements/EPA.html. Retrieved 2010-09-15. 
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