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Overview

Brief Summary

The cod family forms a large family of predator fish. Thirty species of cod are found in European waters, one of which lives in fresh water (the burbot). Most species have the characteristic beard on their chin. They use this to search the bottom for fod. Therefore, it is logical that these species live near the sea bottom, although whiting, coal fish and Norway pout prefer swimming in open waters. Cod species are often caught; worldwide, they form at least one seventh of the total amount of fish caught yearly. Only herring are caught in larger amounts.
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Ecology

Associations

Known predators

Gadidae (Cod) is prey of:
Gadidae
Melanogrammus aeglefinus
Hemitripterus americanus
Leucoraja erinacea
Leucoraja ocellata
Amblyraja radiata
Squalus acanthias
Lophius americanus
Cynoscion
Pomatomus saltatrix

Phocidae
Chondrichthyes
Homo sapiens

Based on studies in:
USA, Northeastern US contintental shelf (Coastal)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • Link J (2002) Does food web theory work for marine ecosystems? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 230:1–9
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Known prey organisms

  • Link J (2002) Does food web theory work for marine ecosystems? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 230:1–9
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:1433
Specimens with Sequences:1332
Specimens with Barcodes:1151
Species:19
Species With Barcodes:19
Public Records:618
Public Species:18
Public BINs:17
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Fish company

A fish company is a company which specializes in the processing of fish products. Fish that are processed by a fish company include cod, hake, haddock, tuna, herring, mackerel, salmon and pollock.

The United States, China, Peru and Chile have the highest number of fish companies specializing in fish processing. The Northwest Pacific Ocean is considered to be the most vital fishing zone in terms of volume caught and processed and that is why the United States is considered the number one fish producing country.[citation needed]

In developing countries, the livelihood of over 500 million people depends on fish and seafood products.

Processing of fish[edit]

Stages in the processing of fish species are:

The steps that are applied by fish companies in the production of fish are:

  • pretreatment
  • filleting
  • grading and trimming
  • package
  • Storage'

Fish processing can occur on the boat and fish processing vessels, and at fish processing plants.

Processing of whitefish[edit]

Whitefish is a fishery term used to define species with fins such as cod, hake, whiting, haddock and pollock. White fish has dry and white flesh and is easy to fillet.

Unlike oily fish, whitefish contains oil in their liver and therefore the fish can be gutted, trimmed and de-headed immediately after being caught, that is on the fishing vessel. After this process, the fish are kept in boxes and kept frozen by placing it on ice.

Upon arrival at the processing plant the fish are freed from ice and kept in chilled storage so as to preserve the fish for further processing. The fish are cleaned for blood, bones fins, black membrane, and fleas, loose fish scales, de-headed and graded according to the required size. This is known as the pretreatment and trimming stage.

The filleting process of the fish starts after the pretreatment and trimming stage. Fish filleting is either done by mechanical filleting machine or by hand. The machine which is used for the production of fish fillet has cutting knives which cut the fillet from the backbone and take out the collarbone. The filleting department and the pretreatment department are always separated from each other because ensures that workers from non-sterile pretreatment area are not coming across the hygienic filleting care area.[1]

The trimming department is controlled by operational inspectors to ensure that the company has met the safety principles and procedures. If defects are found, corrective actions are taken by the food safety management. This is known as Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP).

After the filleting process, skinning of the fish takes place and then the fish fillet is processed into end products such as frozen fish fillet, moulded loins fillet or smoked fish fillet.

The fish fillet may be divided into fish loins, fish fillet tail, etc. It is then packed in blocks and kept in cold storage.

Processing of oily fish[edit]

Oily fish have oils throughout their tissues and around the gut. Examples of oily fish are salmon, tuna, mackerel, herring and anchovy.

Oily fish is not headed and gutted on the fishing vessel because it contains oil and this can be hazardous as it will lead to oily surfaces. Thus, to minimize risk, oily fish are processed at the fish processing plant itself. The filleting process is almost the same the whitefish but oily fish is mostly used as canned fish.

Filleting by hand[edit]

In some fish companies, fish filleting is done manually. This way of fish processing involves high labor costs.

During the processing of fish fillet, the stages are same as the processing of whitefish but the fish are filleted by hand rather than machine. The fish is headed, gutted, de-iced and de-scaled. It is then graded and filleted by hand. After the processing phase, the fish fillet is trimmed for blood, bones fins, black membrane, fleas, loose fish scales and sorted. It is then packed and kept frozen in cold storage.[2]

Food safety[edit]

Fish companies need food safety certification to ensure that the processing has been carried out in a healthy manner. One of the common certifications is Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points) (HACCP).

HACCP is a system which identifies hazards and implements measures for their control. It was developed in 1960 by NASA to ensure food safety for the manned space program. The main objectives of NASA were to prevent food safety problems and control food borne diseases. HACCP has been used by the food industry since the late 1970.

HACCP is certified by the:

  • FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization)
  • Codex Alimentarius (a commission of the United Nations),
  • FDA (US Food and Drug Administration),
  • European Union
  • WHO (World Health Organization)

There are seven elements to HACCP:

  • conduct a hazard analysis.
  • after assessing all the processing steps, the Critical Control Point (CCP) is controlled. CCP are points which determine and control significant hazards in a food manufacturing process.
  • set up critical limits in order to ensure that the hazard identified is being controlled effectively.
  • establish a system so as to monitor the CCP.
  • establish corrective actions where the critical limit has not been met. Actions need to be taken which can be on a short or long-term basis. Records must be kept.
  • establish authentication procedures so as to confirm if the principles imposed by HACCP documents are being respected and all records are being taken.
  • analyze if the HACCP plans are working effectively.

Sustainability[edit]

Fish consumption is increasing worldwide. Millions of people are dependent to fish products as fish consists of protein and is a good meal for health. In order to safeguard fish stocks, fish companies have to join certifications which will contribute to sustainable fishing.

Common certifications are:

Marine Stewardship Council[edit]

Marine Stewardship council is a non-profit organization that works with fisheries and seafood companies in order to contribute to the marine environment by recognizing and rewarding sustainable fishing practices. MSC also educates the population about the importance of choosing sustainable seafood and how they can contribute to the marine ecosystem.[3]

The MSC program is based on three main principles:

  • managing fish stock
  • minimize the impacts of the ecosystem
  • good fishery management system

Fish Company acquires the MSC eco-label only if the seafood product is traceable from boat to plate. This is called the Chain of Custody. The traceability process ensures that consumers are getting what they are paying for, which means that the seafood they are purchasing has been fished sustainably. The bar codes on the fish products can be traced back from consumers to supplier in case of any problem related to the consumed product.

The MSC chain of custody certification is validated on a three years basis so as to ensure that the fish company continues to catch fish in sustainable ways and their loyalty to sustainable seafood has been maintained.

Nowadays, customers find the MSC blue label on more than 600 products worldwide. There has also been 76 percent increase in worldwide sales of MSC labeled products as compared to 2009.

Friend of the Sea[edit]

Friend of the Sea is an international non-governmental organization which seeks to safeguard the marine ecosystem by working with fisheries and fish companies. Friend of the Sea works in conjunction with the article 30 FAO Guidelines for Ecolabelling of Marine Fisheries.[4]

The article states that seafood products can only be certified if the targeted species is not over-exploited. To achieve Friend of the Sea certification, fisheries need to abide with the following criteria:

  • marine species should not be over-fished
  • the method of fishing should not impact the seafloor
  • the method of fishing should generate a maximum of 8% discards
  • all laws and regulations should be respected
  • endangered species should not be by-catch

References[edit]

Usage[edit]

See also[edit]

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Gadidae

The Gadidae are a family of marine fish, included in the order Gadiformes, known as the cods, codfishes or true cods.[2] It contains several commercially important fishes, including the cod, haddock, whiting, and pollock.

Most gadid species are found in temperate waters of the Northern Hemisphere, with some exceptions. They are generally medium-sized fish, and are distinguished by the presence of three dorsal fins on the back and two anal fins on the underside. Most species have barbels on their chins, which they use while browsing on the sea floor. Gadids are carnivorous, feeding on smaller fish and crustaceans.[1]

Gadids are highly prolific, producing several million eggs at each spawning. This contributes to their high population numbers, which, in turn, makes commercial fishing relatively easy.[3]

Concepts differ about the contents of the family Gadidae. The system followed by FishBase includes a dozen genera.[1] Alternatively, also fishes in the current Lotidae (with burbot, cusk) and Phycidae (hakes) have been included in Gadidae, as its subfamilies Lotinae and Phycidae.[4][2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2008). "Gadidae" in FishBase. December 2008 version.
  2. ^ a b "Gadidae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved June 2012. 
  3. ^ Cohen, Daniel M. (1998). Paxton, J. R. & Eschmeyer, W. N., ed. Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 130–131. ISBN 0-12-547665-5. 
  4. ^ Nelson, J. S. 2006. Fishes of the World, 4th edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
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Fish fillet processor

Fish fillet buyers can find on this site a list of locations where fish processing industries are mostly found, starting from the largest fish producing countries. These are the:

Furthermore, these countries also account for almost half of the global processed fish products. Moreover, the Northwest Pacific region is considered to be the key fishing zone. This area has recorded the highest catch in terms of volume and processing of caught fish.

It has been reported that around 30% of fish used for commercial use are marketed as fresh fish for consumptions. The remaining is generally supplied as frozen fish fillet and frozen fish. Nowadays, most developing countries are consuming fish fillets or fish as ready-made meals and expediency food products. In addition, the end product of the processed fish fillet can be fresh, frozen, as moulded loins, canned fish, fish oil and meals, or fish protein products.

Species that are usually processed by fish processing companies include Cod, Hake, Haddock, Tuna, Herring, Mackerel, Salmon and Pollock.

Nowadays, fish processing industries are very well-known internationally. Each fish fillet processing industries are relatively different in terms of productivity, types of operations and yield. However, around 90% of oceanic fish are used for fish productions and the remaining 10% accounts for fresh fish and fish from aqua-cultural production. Most fish fillet processing industries are found near the commercial fishing zone. But, in certain regions, fish that are caught for commercial use, are transported or exported to other areas for processing.[1]

Contents

Filleting procedures of fish fillet

The fish processing procedures can start either on the fishing vessel or at the plants. Most of the fish processing stages usually take place at the plants but in certain cases where big Sea fleets operates; some processing steps can be take place at Sea. For example, the fish are headed and gutted on the board fishing vessel itself.

Nonetheless, the process involved in filleting of whitefish is moderately different as compared to the filleting of oily fish.

Processing of whitefish

Filleting by mechanical filleting machine

The production of fish fillet involves a number of steps that are needed to be followed. It starts from pretreatment, filleting of the fish, grading and trimming of the fish fillet till package and storage of the fish fillet. Each of the stages mentioned above take place in different departments in the fish processing plants. [2]

Whitefish such as hake, Cod and Haddock has soft white flesh and thus make it easy to fillet. The fish is gutted, trimmed and de-headed. Sometimes this process takes place in the fishing vessel itself. The fish are then place on ice and kept in certain type of boxes before being delivered to the fish processing plants. Upon the arrival at the processing plant, the fish is de-iced and placed in chilled storage until the next processing stage is started. Now, the next step to follow is the pretreatment stage. Here, the fish are trimmed for blood, bones fins, black membrane, and fleas, loose fish scales, de-headed and graded according to the required size. The trimming department is strictly controlled by operators. Here, the operators carefully examine the fish fillets in order to ensure that safety procedures have been applied effectively. If some certain defects are detected, strict measures are taken by the food safety management. This is known as Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP).

After the pretreatment stage, the fish are filleted. This is usually done by mechanical filleting machine but in some processing industries, all fish are hand filleted. Nevertheless, industries which use mechanical filleting machine, the filleting department are generally separated from the pretreatment department in order to ensure that workers from non-sterile pretreatment area are not passing through the sterile filleting care area. The machine which is used for the production of fish fillet, consist of cutting knives which cut the fillet from the backbone and take out the collarbone. Skinning of the fish fillet is done at this stage.

After completion of all the above, steps, the fish fillet is processed into different types of end products. This is done as per customers requirements. The fish fillet may be cut into different weight and divided into fish loins, fish fillet tail, etc. It is then packed individually in blocks and kept in cold storage.

Filleting by hand

In certain fish processing industries, fish filleting are done manually. This way of fish processing involves high labor costs as industries need to employ more people to work in their plant. An example of a fish fillet processor in Namibia which apply this method of filleting is Seawork Fish Processors Ltd. Every single fish processed at the plant is being hand filleted so as to ensure that the highest quality of fish products being delivered to its customers. [3]

During the processing of fish fillet, the fish is headed, gutted, de-iced and de-scaled. It is then graded and filleted by hand. After the processing phase, the fish fillet is trimmed for blood, bones fins, black membrane, fleas, loose fish scales and sorted. It is then packed and kept frozen in cold storage. [4]

Processing of Oily fish

Oily fish are species that have oils throughout their tissues and as well as in the belly cavity around the gut. Up to 30% of oil is found in the fillet of the fish species but this varies between species. Examples of Oily fish include Salmon, Tuna, Mackerel, Herring and anchovy.

Due to the extensive oil content found in these species, the fish is not headed and gutted on the fishing vessel. This is by far avoided in order to reduce the risk related with Oily surface. The oily skin of the fish is kept as it retains the quality of the flesh. The filleting process is almost the same the whitefish but oily fish is mostly used as canned fish.

Monitoring of fish fillet processing

Fish processing highly involves very strict controls and measurements in order to ensure that all processing stages have been carried out hygienically. Thus, all fish processing companies are highly recommended to join a certain type of food safety system. One of the certifications that are commonly known is the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP).

HACCP is a system which identifies hazards and implements measures for their control. It was first developed in 1960 by NASA to ensure food safety for the manned space program. The main objectives of NASA were to prevent food safety problems and control food borne diseases. HACCP has been widely used by food industry since the late 1970 and now it is internationally recognized as the best system for ensuring food safety.[5]

HACCP is endorsed by the:

There are seven basic principles that must be followed which are:

Principle 1: Conduct a hazard analysis.

Principle 2: After assessing all the processing steps, the Critical control point (CCP) is controlled. CCP are points which determine and control significant hazards in a food manufacturing process.

Principle 3: Set up critical limits in order to ensure that the hazard identified is being controlled effectively.

Principle 4: Establish a system so as to monitor the CCP.

Principle 5: Establish corrective actions where the critical limit has not been met. Appropriate actions need to be taken which can be on a short or long-term basis. All records must be sustained accurately.

Principle 6: Establish authentication procedures so as to confirm if the principles imposed by HACCP documents are being respected effectively and all records are being taken.

Principle 7: Analyze if the HACCP plan are working effectively.


References

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