The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.
- Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
- Nelson, Joseph S. 1994. Fishes of the World, Third Edition. xvii + 600
- Whymper, F. 1883. Fisheries of the World : an Illustrated and Descriptive Record of the International Fisheries Exhibition, 1883. London : Cassell : Co.: Limited; Page 173
- WoRMS (2014). Gasterosteidae. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2014) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=125476
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