The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Albert, J.S. Phylogenetic systematics of the American knifefishes (Teleostei: Gymnotoidei). Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool., Univ. Michigan. submitted.
  • Alves-Gomes, J.A, G. Ortí, M. Haygood, A. Meyer, W. Heiligenberg. 1993. Phylogenetic analysis of the South American electric fishes (Order Gymnotiformes) and the evolution of their electrogenic system: A synthesis based on morphology, electrophysiology, and mitochondrial sequence data. Mol. Biol. Evol. 12(2):298-318.
  • Bullock, T.H. and W. Heiligenberg. 1986. Electroreception. Wiley- Interscience, New York. 722pp. Chapters by A.H. Bass (Electric organs revisited, pp. 13-70), J. Bastian (Electrolocation: behavior, anatomy, physiology, pp. 577-612), and C.E. Carr and L. Maler (Electroreception in gymnotiform fish: central anatomy and physiology, pp. 319-374).
  • Ellis, M.M. 1913. The gymnotid eels of tropical America. Mem. Carneg. Mus. 6(3):109-195.
  • Gayet, M., F.J. Meunier, and F. Kirschbaum. 1994. Ellisella kirschbaumi Gayet & Meunier, 1991, gymnotiforme fossile de Bolivie et ses relations phylogenetiques au sein des formes actuelles. Cybium 18(3):273-306.
  • Heiligenberg, W.F. 1991. Neural Nets in Electric Fish. MIT Press, Cambridge.
  • Lundberg, J.G., W.M. Lewis, J.F. Saunders, and F. Mago-Leccia. 1987. A major food webb component in the Orinoco River channel: evidence from planktivorous electric fishes. Science 237:81-83.
  • Mago-Leccia, F. 1994. Electric Fishes of the Continental Waters of America. Biblioteca de la Academia de Ciencias Fisicas, Matematicas, y Naturales, Caracas, Venezuela 29:1-206.
  • Nelson, Joseph S. 1994. Fishes of the World, Third Edition. xvii + 600
  • Rasnow, B. 1994. The Electric Field of a Weakly Electric Fish. Ph.D. Thesis, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, 139 pp.
  • Triques, M.L. 1993. Filogenia dos generos de Gymnotiformes (Actinopteryigii, Ostariophysi), com base em characters esqueleticos. Comun. Mus. Ciene. PURCS, ser. zool. Porto Alegre 6:85-130.
  • WoRMS (2014). Gymnotiformes. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2014) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Zakon, H.H. 1986. The electroreceptive periphery. Pp. 103-156 in Electroreception (T.H. Bullock and W. Heiligenberg, eds.). Wiley-Interscience, New York.


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