The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • G. W. Minshall, 1967. Role of allochthonous detritus in the trophic structure of a woodland springbrook community. Ecology 48:139-149, from pp. 145, 148.
  • G. W. Minshall, Role of allochthonous detritus in the trophic structure of a woodland springbrook community, Ecology 48(1):139-149, from p. 148 (1967).
  • Giller, P. S.; Malmqvist, B. 1998. The Biology of Streams and Rivers. Oxford University Press, USA.
  • Hist. Crust. Ins., 3, 426.
  • J. R. E. Jones, 1949. A further ecological study of calcareous streams in the "Black Mountain" district of South Wales. J. Anim. Ecol. 18:142-159, from pp. 154-55, 157.
  • J. R. E. Jones, A further ecological study of the river Rheidol: the food of the common insects of the main-stream, J. Anim. Ecol. 19:159-174, from p. 172 (1950).
  • P. H. T. Hartley, Food and feeding relationships in a community of fresh-water fishes, J. Anim. Ecol. 17(1):1-14, from p. 12 (1948).
  • R. M. Badcock, 1949. Studies in stream life in tributaries of the Welsh Dee. J. Anim. Ecol. 18:193-208, from pp. 202-206 and Price, P. W., 1984, Insect Ecology, 2nd ed., New York: John Wiley, p. 23
  • Simulium
  • Thompson, RM and Townsend CR. 2005. Energy availability, spatial heterogeneity and ecosystem size predict food-web structure in streams. OIKOS 108: 137-148.
  • Thompson, RM and Townsend, CR. 2003. Impacts on stream food webs of native and exotic forest: an intercontinental comparison. Ecology 84:145-161
  • W. E. Ricker, 1934. An ecological classification of certain Ontario streams. Univ. Toronto Studies, Biol. Serv. 37, Publ. Ontario Fish. Res. Lab. 49:7-114, from pp. 105-106.
  • WoRMS (2015). Simulium Latreille, 1802. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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