Ecology

Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Animal / pathogen
pure white to grey or rarely green, shaggy rhizoids of Erynia conica infects adult of Simulium

Animal / endozoite
Paramoebidium chattonii lives within hind gut of larva of Simulium

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Known predators

Simulium (Simulium (N=10)) is prey of:
Cambarus
Orconectes
Isoperia
Isogenus
Semotilus
Rhinichthys
Gammarus
Rhyacophila
Diplectrona
Hydropsyche
Oreonectes
Deronectes
Polycentropus
Perlodes
Cyprinidae
Salmo trutta
Gobio gobio
Hymenophysa curta
Perla carlukiana
Dinocras cephalotes
Rhyacophila obliterata
Hydropsyche instabilis
Plectrocnemia conspersa
Rhinichthys atratulus
Semotilus atromaculatus
Orconectes rusticus
Cambarus tenebrosus
Isoperla clio
Isogenus decisus
Gammarus minus
Diplectrona modesta
Salvelinus fontinalis
Herpodbella octoculata
Rhyacophila dorsalis
Polycentropus flavomaculatus
Hydropyschidae
Rhinichthys cataractae

Based on studies in:
USA: Kentucky (River)
Wales, River Rheidol (River)
Wales, Dee River (River)
England, River Cam (River)
Wales, River Clydach (River)
USA: Kentucky, Station 1 (River)
Canada: Ontario (River)
USA: Maine, Troy (River)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • G. W. Minshall, Role of allochthonous detritus in the trophic structure of a woodland springbrook community, Ecology 48(1):139-149, from p. 148 (1967).
  • J. R. E. Jones, A further ecological study of the river Rheidol: the food of the common insects of the main-stream, J. Anim. Ecol. 19:159-174, from p. 172 (1950).
  • J. R. E. Jones, 1949. A further ecological study of calcareous streams in the "Black Mountain" district of South Wales. J. Anim. Ecol. 18:142-159, from pp. 154-55, 157.
  • G. W. Minshall, 1967. Role of allochthonous detritus in the trophic structure of a woodland springbrook community. Ecology 48:139-149, from pp. 145, 148.
  • R. M. Badcock, 1949. Studies in stream life in tributaries of the Welsh Dee. J. Anim. Ecol. 18:193-208, from pp. 202-206 and Price, P. W., 1984, Insect Ecology, 2nd ed., New York: John Wiley, p. 23
  • Thompson, RM and Townsend CR. 2005. Energy availability, spatial heterogeneity and ecosystem size predict food-web structure in streams. OIKOS 108: 137-148.
  • W. E. Ricker, 1934. An ecological classification of certain Ontario streams. Univ. Toronto Studies, Biol. Serv. 37, Publ. Ontario Fish. Res. Lab. 49:7-114, from pp. 105-106.
  • P. H. T. Hartley, Food and feeding relationships in a community of fresh-water fishes, J. Anim. Ecol. 17(1):1-14, from p. 12 (1948).
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Known prey organisms

Simulium (Simulium (N=10)) preys on:
detritus
Bacillariophyceae
green algae
stem tissue
fragmented leaf
Bryophyta
plant fragments
Coscinodiscus
Synedra
Ulothrix
Chironomidae
encrusting algae
algae
pulverized masses
plant tissue
Cosmarium
Cymbella aspera
Cymbella cuspidata
Cymbella kappii
Cymbella tumida
Diatoma heimale
Epithemia turgida

Fragilaria
Frustulia rhomboides
Navicula avenacea
Pleurotaenium
Rhoicosphenia curvata
Staurastrum
Tabellaria flocculosa
Cyanobacteria
organic detritus
Cymbella mulleri
Epithemia A
Fragilaria vaucheriae
Gomphonema A
Gomphonema truncatum
Nitzschia linearis
Pinnularia viridis

Based on studies in:
USA: Kentucky (River)
Wales, River Rheidol (River)
Wales, River Clydach (River)
USA: Kentucky, Station 1 (River)
Wales, Dee River (River)
USA: Maine, Martins (River)
England, River Cam (River)
USA: Maine, Troy (River)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • G. W. Minshall, Role of allochthonous detritus in the trophic structure of a woodland springbrook community, Ecology 48(1):139-149, from p. 148 (1967).
  • J. R. E. Jones, A further ecological study of the river Rheidol: the food of the common insects of the main-stream, J. Anim. Ecol. 19:159-174, from p. 172 (1950).
  • J. R. E. Jones, 1949. A further ecological study of calcareous streams in the "Black Mountain" district of South Wales. J. Anim. Ecol. 18:142-159, from pp. 154-55, 157.
  • G. W. Minshall, 1967. Role of allochthonous detritus in the trophic structure of a woodland springbrook community. Ecology 48:139-149, from pp. 145, 148.
  • R. M. Badcock, 1949. Studies in stream life in tributaries of the Welsh Dee. J. Anim. Ecol. 18:193-208, from pp. 202-206 and Price, P. W., 1984, Insect Ecology, 2nd ed., New York: John Wiley, p. 23
  • Thompson, RM and Townsend CR. 2005. Energy availability, spatial heterogeneity and ecosystem size predict food-web structure in streams. OIKOS 108: 137-148.
  • Thompson, RM and Townsend, CR. 2003. Impacts on stream food webs of native and exotic forest: an intercontinental comparison. Ecology 84:145-161
  • P. H. T. Hartley, Food and feeding relationships in a community of fresh-water fishes, J. Anim. Ecol. 17(1):1-14, from p. 12 (1948).
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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Hooks aid underwater attachment: blackfly
 

The legs of blackfly larvae anchor them to silk pads attached to the substrate via numerous hooks.

     
  "Blackfly larvae, even when very small, produce large amounts of silk which serves several purposes. First, silk is used for anchorage and explains the extraordinary capacity of blackfly larvae to remain attached or move in fast-flowing microhabitats. The larvae have numerous hooks, arranged in characteristic rows, encircling the tips of the anterior (thoracic) and abdominal prolegs (Fig. 5.5, p. 113). These help larvae to anchor firmly onto silk pads attached to the substrate. In species dwelling in particularly fast flow, the number of hooks on the abdominal proleg may exceed 8000, compared to only 500 in species living at slow velocity (Crosskey, 1990)." (Giller and Malmqvist 1998:116)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Giller, P. S.; Malmqvist, B. 1998. The Biology of Streams and Rivers. Oxford University Press, USA.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:8,273Public Records:2,146
Specimens with Sequences:7,632Public Species:146
Specimens with Barcodes:7,184Public BINs:151
Species:358         
Species With Barcodes:324         
          
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Simulium verecundum/verecundum complex

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Simulium venustum/truncatum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 11
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Simulium Eusimulium sp.

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Simulium sp. 1

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Simulium n sp.

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Simulium nr. siripoomense

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Simulium nr. maenoi

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Simulium nr. albilineatum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Simulium anatinum/randalense

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Simulium cf. impar

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Simulium nr. equinuum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Simulium nr. asakoae

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Simulium

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Wikipedia

Simulium

Simulium is a genus of black flies, which may transmit diseases such as onchocerciasis (river blindness). It is a large genus with several hundred species, and 41 subgenera.[1]

The flies are pool feeders. Their saliva, which contains anticoagulants, a number of enzymes and histamine, is mixed with the blood, preventing clotting until it is ingested by the fly. These bites cause localized tissue damage, and if the number of feeding flies is sufficient, their feeding may produce a blood-loss anaemia.

The host’s reaction to fly attacks may include systemic illness, allergic reactions or even death, presumably mediated by histamine. In humans, this systemic reaction is known as “black fly fever” and is characterized by headaches, fever, nausea, adenitis, generalized dermatitis, and allergic asthma.

Systematics[edit]

Subgenera:

References[edit]

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