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There are 69 valid, extant species of Pipunculus. This genus has a predominantly Holarctic distribution. Only two species have distributions exclusively in the Neotropical Region while an additional three species have ranges that extend into the Neotropics. Recent regional revisions and/or keys can be found in Skevington & Marshall (1998 – Nearctic), Dunk (1997 – Central Europe), Kozanek (1981 – ‘Czechoslovakia’), and Coe (1966 – Great Britain). Despite the presence of several recent European keys, the taxonomy of Pipunculus in this region is poorly understood. Kehlmaier's recent work on Finnish Pipunculidae addresses some serious problems with taxonomy of Pipunculus but a revision of this genus in the Palaearctic is still badly needed. The work of Skevington in the Nearctic also needs revisiting. This is a difficult group and variation in genitalia within species may indicate the presence of species complexes. Molecular data should be included in future revisions of this genus as an independent test of species concepts.


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