The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • AFPD. 2008. African Flowering Plants Database - Base de Donnees des Plantes a Fleurs D'Afrique.
  • Hortus Britannicus 1: 323. 1827. (Hort. Brit.)
  • Moldenke, H. N. Verbenacees. Fl. Madagasc. 174: 1–264.


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!