The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.
- AFPD. 2008. African Flowering Plants Database - Base de Donnees des Plantes a Fleurs D'Afrique.
- Hortus Britannicus 1: 323. 1827. (Hort. Brit.)
- Moldenke, H. N. Verbenacees. Fl. Madagasc. 174: 1–264.
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