Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

Timber valuable.
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Tree
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Distribution

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Global Distribution

India, Indo-China, Malesia and Sri Lanka

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

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Found along the river banks and deciduous forests above 600m. Common. Peninsular India.
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Physical Description

Morphology

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Flower

In panicles from terminal and upper leaf axils; blue to purple. Flowering from June-September.

Fruit

A globose drupe, fleshy, purple when ripe. Fruiting from October-January.

Field tips

Bark yellowish-grey. Rachis and petioles winged in young plants.

Leaf Arrangement

Opposite-decussate

Leaf Type

3-foliate

Leaf Shape

Obovate-lanceolate to oblanceolate

Leaf Apex

Acuminate

Leaf Base

Acute

Leaf Margin

Entire

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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Trees, to 30 m high, bark 10-13 mm thick, greyish-yellow, scaly; blaze yellow; branchlets lenticellate, minutely tomentose. Leaves compound, trifoliate, opposite, estipulate; rachis 35-60 mm long, slender, pubescent, winged in sapling leaves, wings auriculate at base; leaflets 3-5, sessile; lamina 6-18 x 2-5 cm, lanceolate, elliptic-lanceolate, or oblanceolate, base cuneate or acute, apex acuminate, margin entire, glabrous above and pubescent or glabrescent along the nerves below, chartaceous; lateral nerves 10-16 pairs, pinnate, puberulent beneath, slender, prominent; intercostae reticulate, prominent. Flowers bisexual, white, tinged with blue, in terminal panicles, 5-8 m long; bracts lanceolate, 3 mm long, cauducous; calyx densely tomentose, shortly 5 lobed, ovate; corolla 5 mm long, 2 lipped, upper lip of 2 and lower lip of 3 lobes, obtuse, throat villous; stamens 4, didynamous, exserted; filaments hairy at base; ovary globose, 1 mm, superior, densely hairy, 2-4-celled, 4 ovuled; style filiform; stigmas bifid. Fruit a drupe, 5 x 5 mm, smooth, globose, glabrous, blue, supported by enlarged calyx; seeds 4, obovate."
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Diagnostic

"Habit: A large deciduous tree, upto 15m."
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"Moist deciduous and semi-evergreen forests, also in sacred groves"
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General Habitat

"Common in forest, less on slopes, down to foothills. Hills above 600m. Peninsular India."
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: March-July
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

"Cattle feed on leaves. Firewood species.

Wood very hard and used for furniture, construction and agricultural implements.

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Folklore

Cattle feed on the leaves. Wood preferred for fuel.

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