Overview

Comprehensive Description

General Description

Description: A large stalked sponge ca. 50 cm high, composed of a rhizoid fixation system, a cylindrical stalk ending in an enlarged, ovoid body from which secondary branches radiate in all directions, each ending in an irregular swelling on preserved specimens or a translucent sphere in living specimens. The fixation base was not preserved, but is estimated to be 6 cm long. The stalk is 24.5 cm high and 5-6 mm in diameter and is rigid, smooth near the base and rugose to the fingers near the body. The stalk is made of longitudinally arranged fusiform style and has a coating of rugose tylostyles. The body is ovoid, 30 x 20 mm in size, with a rugose surface from which radiate 13 secondary axes, each 2-4 mm in diameter and with a maximum length of 50 mm. The secondary axes are somewhat curved and end in an irregular bulge, which often coalesces with one or two of the bulges of the nearby extensions, sometimes forming a veil with the axes. The translucent spheres are of variable diameter, estimated to be between 3-5 mm. Apertures are not visible. The sponge has a rigid consistency, but is easily broken. It is coloured yellowish white to clear brown when preserved in alcohol.

Skeleton: The stalk is made of large fusiform styles arranged in a parallel without any twisting, with a thick cover of rugose tylostyles arranged in a dense irregular feltwork. The cover is devoid of microscleres in the most basal part of the stalk, with a few isochelae 1 near the body. The body and secondary branches have a rugose coating of styles smaller than those of the axis, including numerous microscleres. The bulges have a confused skeleton of fusiform styles, smaller than those in the axis, and an outer cover of extremely numerous microscleres, especially isochelae 1.

Spicules: The styles of the fibres of the body and the stalk are straight, strongly fusiform (e.g. a spicule of 4750 um length has a head of 20 um in diameter and a middle of 75 um in diameter), with a head abruptly shrunken to 20 um long and an acerate tip. Size 700-4750 x 15-75 um.

The styles of the terminal swellings are fusiform, similar to those of the stalk and body, but smaller. Size 510-580 x 17-30 um.

The subtylostyles or tylostyles of the outer cover of the stalk and of the swellings are slightly curved or flexuous, often with a marked oval head, rugose with numerous short spines. Size 300-535 x 5-6 um.

The anchorate isochelae 1 are rare or absent from the stalk, but common in the body and very abundant in the swellings, with six alae at each end. The alae are relatively short, lanceolate, sharp with a well-marked hull on the underside. The shaft is curved, with narrow fimbriae. Size 123-140 um, shaft 6-7 um thick, alae 25 um long.

The anchorate isochelae 2 are rare in the stalk, but moderately abundant in the body and the bulges, with six alae. The alae are rather thick, lanceolate with a sharp point. Size 20-32 um, shaft 2 um thick, alae 10-11 um long.

The sigmas are rare in the body and the stalk, but not seen in the bulges. Size 45-120 x 2-3 um, possibly in two size categories, but with numerous intermediary forms.

(Vacelet, 2006)

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Color: White in life, yellowish white to clear brown in alcohol.

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The collected specimen was rooted in sediment between pillow lava, near active hydrothermal sites, but in an area still with low density of animal life. Sponges of similar morphology have been often observed on various sites of the East Pacific Rise, either rooted in sediment or attached to pillow lava, always at some distance from the rich animal communities of the active hydrothermal sites. Their identification to C. lampadiglobus cannot be ascertained from external morphology alone, and several species may be present in this large geographic zone. Carnivorous mode of feeding.

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Distribution

East Pacific Rise (17°24.10'S 113°13.75'W) at 2714 m depths near the thermal site Rehu (Vacelet, 2006).

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East Pacific Rise: collected at 17°S. Sponges of similar morphology observed in various sites extending from 23°S to 13°N, 2600-3000 m deep.

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Physical Description

Morphology

Large stalked sponge, composed of a rhizoid fixation system, a cylindrical stalk ending in an enlarged, ovoid body from which radiate in all directions secondary branches, each ending in translucent sphere in the living animal, in an irregular swelling including crustacean debris on the preserved specimen. Aquiferous system present, with large choanocyte chambers and canals ending in the inflatable spheres. Skeleton: stalk and branches made of large fusiform styles longitudinally arranged, covered with a feltwork of rugose tylostyles; terminal swellings made of smaller styles with an outer cover of numerous microscleres. Spicules: fusiform styles, 700-4750 x 15-75 ?m and 510-580 x 17-30 ?m; rugose tylostyles, 300-535 x 5-6 ?m; anchorate isochelae in two sizes, with six alae at each end, 123- 140 ?m, alae 25 ?m long, and 20-32 ?m, alae 10-11 ?m long; sigmas 45-120 x 2-3 ?m.

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Size

Up to approximately 50 cm high, with inflated spheres 3- 5 cm in diameter.

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Ecology

Habitat

abyssal plain
  • CeDAMar (Census of the Diversity of Abyssal Marine Life)
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Depth range based on 2 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 2 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 2600 - 2714
  Temperature range (°C): 1.823 - 1.823
  Nitrate (umol/L): 36.252 - 36.252
  Salinity (PPS): 34.674 - 34.674
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.489 - 3.489
  Phosphate (umol/l): 2.500 - 2.500
  Silicate (umol/l): 127.119 - 127.119

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 2600 - 2714
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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